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THE FREED in AMERI- 
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BLACK FOLK IN ART SERIES 



Emancipation and the Freed 
in American Sculpture 

A STUDY IN INTERPRETATION 
By 

FREEMAN HENRY MORRIS MURRAY 



Introduction by John Wesley Cromwell, A. M., Secretary of 
the American Negro Academy and author of 
"The Negro in American History 



PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR 

1733 7th STREET, N. W. 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

19 16 



DEG 71984 



Coypright, 1916 
by Freeman H. M. Murray 



PRESS OF 

MURRAY BROTHERS, INC. 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



To DELILAH 

my devoted wife, and to my scarcely less 
devoted family, of sons, daughters, and 
brother, without whose encouragement 
and cooperation it would not have been 
possible for me to have accomplished 
the modicum herein indicated, this lit- 
tle book is affectionately dedicated. 



CONTENTS 

PAGES 

Preface ....... xvii 

Introduction ...... xxv 

TOPICS 

Powers' Greek Slave ..... 1 

Freedom, on the National Capitol, by Thomas 

Crawford ..... 3 

The Libyan Sibyl, by William Wetmore Story . 5 

The Freedman, by John Quincy Adams Ward . 12 

The Freedwoman, by Edmonia Lewis . . 20 

Emancipation, figure, Detroit, by Randolph Rogers 24 

Emancipation, group, Washington and Boston, by 

Thomas Ball ..... 26 

Emancipation, group, Edinburgh, by George E. 

Bissell ...... 32 

Emancipation, panel, Cleveland, by Levi T. Scofield 37 

Proposed Lincoln Memorial, by Clark Mills . 39 

Summary — Emancipation groups and figures . 43 

Emancipation, group, by Meta V. Warrick Fuller . 55 

The Beecher Monument, Brooklyn, by John Quincy 

Adams Ward ..... 66 



CONTENTS 

Mortar Practice, group, Cleveland, by Levi T 
Scofield ..... 

The Navy, group, Brooklyn, by Frederick Mac 
Monnies .... 

Powell's picture, The Battle of Lake Erie . 

Stalwart Negroes in Art 

The Cumasan Sibyl, by Elihu Vedder 

Africa, statuette, at the National Capitol, by 
Randolph Rogers 

Africa, group, New York City, by Daniel Chester 
French ..... 

The Harriet Tubman Tablet, Auburn, N. Y. 

The Douglass Monument; Rochester, N. Y. 

The Democracy of Childhood, group, Waterbury 
Conn., by George E. Bissell 

The Attucks Monument, Boston, by Robert Kraus 
Faithful Slaves Monuments . 

Peace, group, Indianapolis, by Bruno Schmitz 

Sculptors from the South and Black Folk . 

Black Folk in the Sculpture at the Centennial 

Ethiopia, and Toussaint L'Ouverture, by Anne 
Whitney .... 

The John Rogers Groups 

The Shaw Memorial, Boston, by Augustus Saint 
Gaudens .... 



71 

73 

79 
80 
82 

87 

92 
102 
106 

109 

114 
117 

120 

128 

132 

136 
143 

164 



Hopes of the Future, figures in group at the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition, by A. Stirling 
Calder 175 



VI 



CONTENTS 

Appendix . . . . . .183 

Notes ....... 193 

Postscript ...... 225 

Index ....... 227 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



1. The Greek Slave, statue, by Hiram Powers 

From an engraving by W. Roffe 

2. Freedom, statue, on Dome of the National Capitol, 

by Thomas Crawford 

From a picture of the plaster cast 

3. The Libyan Sibyl, statue, by W. W. Story 

From an engraving by E. W. Stodart 

4. The Freedman, statuette, by J. Q. A. Ward 

From a photograph loaned by the sculptor's widow 

5. The Freedwoman (or Freedom), group, by Edmonia 

Lewis 
From photograph loaned by Mr. G. W. Forbes (See p. 225) 

6. Military Monument, Detroit, by Randolph Rogers 

From a photograph presented by Mr. Francis H. Warren 

7. Emancipation, figure, on Military Monument, Detroit, 

by Randolph Rogers 
Detail of photograph (See under 6) 

8. Emancipation, group, Washington and Boston, by 

Thomas Ball 
From heliotype in official descriptive booklet 

9. Emancipation, group, Edinburgh, Scotland, by George 

E. Bissell 

From a photograph loaned by the sculptor 

10. Emancipation, panel, in base of Military Monument, 
Cleveland, by Levi T. Scofield 

From a photog raph loaned by the sculptor 



XI 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

11. Proposed Lincoln Memorial, designed by Clark Mills 

From a photograph loaned by Mr. Henry A. Vale 

12. Emancipation, group (front view), by Meta Vaux 

Warrick Fuller 

From a photograph presented by the sculptress 

13. Emancipation, group (side view), by Meta Vaux 

Warrick Fuller 

From a photograph presented by the sculptress 

14. The Beecher Monument, Brooklyn, by J. Q. A. Ward 

From a photograph by the Detroit Photographic Co. 

15. Figure on the Beecher Monument, Brooklyn, by 

J. Q. A. Ward 

From a photograph loaned by the sculptor's widow 

16. Mortar Practice, group, on the Military Monument, 

Cleveland, by Levi T. Scofield 
From a photograph loaned by the sculptor 

17. The Navy, group, on Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial 

Arch, Brooklyn, by Frederick MacMonnies 
From a picture in "Brush and Pencil" (discontinued) 

18. Jane Jackson, painted from life by Elihu Vedder 

Electrotype by courtesy of the Houghton Mifflin Company, 
publishers, and the sculptor 

19. The Cumaean Sibyl, bronze bust, by Elihu Vedder 

Electrotype by courtesy of the Houghton Mifflin Company, 
publishers, and the sculptor 

20. Africa, figure, on door-frame at the National Capitol, 

by Randolph Rogers 

From a photograph made and presented by Mr. Fred A. 
Fowler 

21. Africa, group, in front of the Custom House, New 

York City (front view), by Daniel C. French 

From a photograph presented by the sculptor 

22. Africa, group, in front of the Custom House, New 

York City (side view), by Daniel C. French 

From picture in the Century Magazine by permission 

xii 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

23. The Harriet Tubman Tablet, Auburn, N. Y. 

From picture in the official descriptive booklet 

24. The Douglass Monument, Rochester, N. Y., by Sidney 

W. Edwards 

From photograph loaned by Mr. John W. Thompson 

25. Military Monument, Waterbury, Conn., by George 

E. Bissell 

From a photograph made for the author 

26. The Democracy of Childhood, group, on Military 

Monument, Waterbury, Conn., by Geo. E. Bissell 

From photograph made for the author 

27. The Attucks Monument, Boston, by Robert Kraus 

From picture in official descriptive booklet 

28. Bronze Panel on Attucks Monument, Boston, by 

Robert Kraus 

From picture in the official descriptive booklet 

29. Faithful Slaves Monument, Fort Mill, S. C. 

From picture presented by Mr. C. S. Link 

30. Peace, group, on Military Monument, Indianapolis, by 

Bruno Schmitz 
From photograph by the Detroit Photographic Co. 

31. War, group, on Military Monument, Indianapolis, by 

Bruno Schmitz 

From photograph by the Detroit Photographic Co. 

32. L'Depart, group, on the Arc de Triomphe, Paris, by 

Fr. Rude 

From a photograph 

33. The Army, group, on Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial 

Arch, Brooklyn, by Frederick MacMonnies 

From picture in "Brush and Pencil" (discontinued) 

34. L'Africaine, statue, exhibited at the Centennial Expo- 

sition, by E. Caroni 
From picture in Sandhurst's book, "The Great Centennial" 

xiii 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

35. L'Abolizione, statue, exhibited at the Centennial Ex- 

position, by R. Vincenzo 

From picture in Sandhurst's book, "The Great Centennial" 

36. Ethiopia, statue, by Anne Whitney 

From photograph loaned by Mrs. Olive Tilford Dargan 

37. Toussaint L'Ouverture, statue, by Anne Whitney 

From photograph loaned by Mrs. Olive Tilford Dargan 

38. The Slave Auction, group, by John Rogers 

From photograph loaned by the sculptor's widow 

39. The Fugitive's Story, group, by John Rogers 

From reproduction of picture in New York Public Library 

40. Taking the Oath and Drawing Rations, group, by 

John Rogers 

From photograph of group in the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art 

41. The Wounded Scout, group, by John Rogers 

From photograph of group in the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art 

42. Uncle Ned's School, group, by John Rogers 

From photograph loaned by the sculptor's widow 

43. The Shaw Memorial, Boston, by Augustus Saint- 

Gaudens 

From a Copley Print — Curtis and Cameron, Boston 

44. The Nations of the East, group, at Panama-Pacific 

Exposition, by A. Stirling Calder 
From photograph by the Cardinell- Vincent Company, San 
Francisco, Cal, 

45. The Nations of the West, group, at Panama-Pacific 

Exposition, by A. Stirling Calder 
From photograph by the Cardinell- Vincent Company, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

46. Hopes of the Future, figures in group at Panama- 

Pacific Exposition, by A. Stirling Calder 

Detail of photograph (See under 45) 

xiv 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

47. The Death of Major Montgomery, tablet, in Old Fort 

Griswold, New London, Conn. 

From photograph made for the author 

48. Proposed Freedmen's Memorial for Lincoln, designed 

by Harriet Hosmer 

From picture in the London Art Journal 



PREFACE 



This monograph is chiefly the expansion of 
papers which were read as lectures (illustra- 
ted by lantern slides) at the Summer School 
and Chautauqua of the National Religious 
Training School at Durham, N. C, in 1913. 
Some of the matter has also appeared in the 
A. M. E. Church Review. 

The expansion consists in the insertion of 
additional comment and explanation concern- 
ing the sculptures that were originally dealt 
with in the papers, and the inclusion of a few 
additional works more or less related to the 
subject in hand. > A few foot-notes and refer- 
ences have been added and several somewhat 
extended notes have been placed at the end. 
In general, it has not been indicated what be- 
sides the notes are the additions and what the 
original matter. 

When preparing the manuscript for print- 
ing as a monograph, some changes in the 
wording were made in order to render the 
forms of expressions less direct and didactic. 

xvii 



PREFACE 

These alterations were perhaps not made as 
thoroughly and consistently as they should 
have been. 

Under the general title, "Black Folk in Art," 
I am gathering and arranging materials 
which I hope to publish in the form of other 
monographs. The plan contemplates covering 
the portrayal of Black Folk in art, and also 
their ccnti-ibutions to art, in ancient and in 
modern times. Concededly this is an ambi- 
tious undertaking. But surely it is a work 
that should be done, or at least begun, by 
somebody. Seemingly, this monograph is 
published out of its proper chronological or- 
der, but a beginning had to be made some- 
where, and, for reasons that need not be 
gone into, the phase of the matter treated 
herein seemed most nearly ready. 

It will be observed that the sub-title to this 
monograph reads: "A Study in Interpretation." 
That indicates one of the chief purposes that 
I have in view ; and, notwithstanding a great 
deal of present-day prating about "art for 
art's sake," it is my intention to stand with 
those who hold that the most important feat- 
ure of art is ivhat is portrayed ; agreeing with 
Tuckerman's dictum, "The first requisite [in 
art] is to have something worth saying." 

The great Ruskin has said : "Art's value is 
to state a true thing or to adorn a serviceable 

xviii 



PREFACE 

one." I think that, for certain occasions, 
Ruskin would not have objected to a little 
expansion of this to make it read : "Art's 
value is to state a true thing or to suggest 
a true thought/' etc. Certainly, that is Art's 
power, if not its chief value. Hence, when 
we look at a work of art, especially when 
"we" look at one in which Black Folk appear 
— or do not appear when they should, — we 
should ask : What does it mean ? What does 
it suggest? What impression is it likely to 
make on those who view it? What will be 
the effect on present-day problems, of its ob- 
vious and also of its insidious teachings ? In 
short, we should endeavor to "interpret" it; 
and should try to interpret it from our own 
peculiar viewpoint. 

It is because of my conviction of the im- 
portance of interpretation and analysis — for 
what purports to be serious art, at the least — 
that I have imposed my own views so freely 
herein. Yet other opinions and interpreta- 
tions have been liberally quoted. 

This matter of interpretation, and also re- 
gard for the contents of, as well as for the 
omissions from, art works, is especially im- 
portant as to sculpture, because sculpture 
more frequently than painting serves higher 
purposes than that of mere ornament or of 
the mere picturing of something. Often it is 

xix 



PREFACE 

designed to commemorate some individual or 
some event, or, particularly in the group 
form, its main purpose is to "say something." 
The fact is, nearly all sculptural groups, and 
a considerable number of individual statues, 
are based on some purpose beyond mere por- 
traiture or illustration. Moreover, these com- 
memorative and "speaking" groups generally 
stand in the open, at the intersections of the 
highways and in the most conspicuous places. 
We cannot be too concerned as to what they 
say or suggest, or what they leave unsaid. 

We can hardly press too strongly the im- 
portance of careful, perspicacious interpreta- 
tion. I am convinced that, for Black Folk — 
in America, at least — this is of paramount 
importance. Under the anomalous conditions 
prevailing in this country, any recognition of 
Black Folk in art works which are intended 
for public view, is apt to be pleasing to us. 
But it does not follow that every such recog- 
nition is creditable and helpful ; some of them, 
indeed, are just the opposite. It is my pur- 
pose herein, to indicate, as well as I can, what 
I think are the criteria for the formation of 
judgments in these matters. It is not expect- 
ed that the views herein stated will meet 
with unanimous approval. That is not im- 
portant. If, however, the discussions and at- 
tempted analyses herein, tend to encourage or 

XX 



PREFACE 

to initiate, in other persons, candid statement 
and critical analysis in the matters now under 
consideration, one of my main purposes will 
be accomplished. 

It is perhaps not necessary to go further 
than simply to point out, that, what I have 
tried to stress herein — interpretation — is 
different from technical criticism. At the 
present time and for the present purpose, 
interpretation — which includes : intention, 
meaning, effect — is of such paramount im- 
portance, that I would not wish to distract 
attention from it by extensive technical criti- 
cism, even if I felt myself competent to in- 
dulge in such criticism. 



I wish that it were possible to state my in- 
debtedness, and fully to express my gratitude, 
to the many persons who have given assist- 
ance and encouragement in this work. Some 
acknowledgments are made in the text and 
the notes and in connection with the pictures ; 
but the full extent of my indebtedness is sel- 
dom indicated. 

Very deeply am I indebted to Professor 
John W. Cromwell of Washington, D. C, who 
will contribute an Introduction, and who has 
not only given me valuable advice, criticism, 
and encouragement, but has also looked over 



XXI 



PREFACE 

the proofs of the most of the pages as they 
were put into type. In justice to Professor 
Cromwell, however, it should be stated that 
very few, if any, of the errors, typographical 
and other, that have gotten into the printed 
pages, were in those proofs that passed under 
his trained eye. 

I am also deeply indebted to Mrs. M. V. 
Warrick Fuller, sculptress, of Framingham, 
Massachusetts, whose intelligent helpfulness, 
and whose knowledge in matters pertaining 
to art and art works, have been constantly at 
my service. 

Scarcely less than to the persons just men- 
tioned, I am indebted to the Reverend Doctor 
Horace Bumstead, retired president of Atlanta 
University, whose assistance, rendered in so 
many ways, deserves far greater recompense 
than this mere acknowledgment. 

Among others whose assistance has been 
of especial value, the following persons, who, 
I believe, are not mentioned in the text nor in 
the notes, come to mind : Mr. A. D. Hervilly 
of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York City; Mr. H. D. Lydenburg of the New 
York Public Library; Mr. Herbert Putnam, 
Librarian of Congress and Mr. George F. 
Bowerman of the Public Library, Washington 
City, and their courteous assistants; Mrs. 
Geraldine L. Trotter of the Boston Guardian ; 



XXI 1 



PREFACE 

Professor R. R. Wright of Savannah, Georgia; 
and Mrs. Mae P. Smith Johnson of Jersey- 
City; and also the "World's Work," magazine. 
There are others whose assistance has been 
of value mainly in phases of the work not 
strictly covered by this monograph. 

As to the illustrations, it should perhaps be 
stated that the reproductions herein are not 
to be regarded as indicative of the artistic 
and technical merits or demerits, actual or 
relative, of the various works of art which 
are pictured ; this, if for no other reason, on 
account of the diversity of sources on which 
I have been obliged to draw. In most cases, 
all that may be claimed is, that the picture 
indicates more or less sufficiently the general 
form and appearance of the figure, or group, 
or panel under consideration. 

The work of locating and securing the pic- 
tures has been by far the most difficult and 
trying part of the undertaking ; and the grati- 
fying measure of success which has been at- 
tained is very largely due to the generous 
assistance of the persons whom I have named 
in this preface and elsewhere herein, and to 
a few others who have given me numerous 
fruitful clues. 

Finally : it may partially explain some mat- 
ters connected with the arrangement and 
"make up" of this book, which otherwise 

xxiii 



PREFACE 

might be puzzling, if I state that the gather- 
ing of materials and the "expansion" of the 
original papers have continued while the mat- 
ter herein was being put into type (by my 
own hand, during spare hours) for more than 
a year. 

F. H. M. M. 

Washington, D. C, 
July, 1916. 



INTRODUCTION 



"Black Folk in Art" suggests at once a 
study, a field of investigation and interpre- 
tation, unique and of absorbing interest. 
Whether in an objective or in a subjective 
sense its appeal is not controversial but is 
mainly addressed to the sensibilities of taste 
and beauty. As a theme, it is an evolution 
rather than one primarily for elaboration or 
analysis, for observation or for generalization. 

"Emancipation and the Freed in American 
Sculpture" became a subject for contempla- 
tion with the author only after beauties from 
the general viewpoint of Black Folk in Art 
had for many years engaged many of his 
leisure moments. During this time he was 
widely known as newspaper correspondent 
and editor, and as a contributor to several 
magazines. In the pursuit of his art studies 
in the realm of the Christ Child in art, there 
were incidentally brought to his attention, 
in pictures and in book illustrations, certain 
portrayals of the Biblical event known as the 

XXV 



INTRODUCTION 

"Adoration of the Magi," from which por- 
trayals there were omissions of proper repre- 
sentation of the darker races. These omis- 
sions excited his protest, which protest was 
first set forth in magazine articles, and later 
in illustrated lectures. Gradually the field 
was broadened until his articles and lectures 
covered more or less completely the whole 
range of the portrayal of Black Folk in Art. 

The next step was the desire to put into 
permanent form the results of his observa- 
tions and inquiries, supplemented by his own 
opinions on such phases of the subject as 
seemed appropriate. In short, he resolved to 
attempt the publication of a series of mono- 
graphs under the general title, "Black Folk in 
Art." The present monograph, "Emancipa- 
tion and the Freed in American Sculpture," 
is the first fruit of that resolve. 

So far as the undersigned is aware, there 
has been no similar literary venture in this 
particular field ; yet one would hesitate to pre- 
sent the results of even so unique a study to 
a public already overburdeded with an abun- 
dance of literary material of one sort and an- 
other in the absence of an unmistakable de- 
mand. But Mr. Murray has made the at- 
tempt, and has done the work with such 
ability as to render a conspicuous public ser- 
vice. Judging from this initial success, the 

xxvi 



INTRODUCTION 

succeeding works of this series will be antici- 
pated with increasing interest. 

In the investigation of his subject, Mr. 
Murray was brought into correspondence 
with artists both of this country and of 
Europe, and also with men and women whose 
personal acquaintance with artists (some of 
them no longer living) enabled these persons 
to give the key to the interpretation that the 
individual viewpoint of the artist and the en- 
vironment supplied. By pursuing this plan 
of ascertaining the facts relative to the sub- 
ject of his interest, along with the usual meth- 
ods of reading and investigating, he acquired 
a comprehensive knowledge of art and art 
values and their subtle relations. His studies 
along these lines eventually made him an art 
critic. Step by step he was led onward until 
he had made not only a survey of whatsoever 
embraced the Freed in American sculpture^ 
but as well, an exhaustive and intensive 
study. The works of art covered by this 
survey were produced in the period extend- 
ing from the days of Emancipation, through 
Reconstruction, to the threshold of the second 
decade of the present century — almost two 
generations. 

The undersigned, having been privileged 
with the opportunity of reading the advanced 
sheets and having been consulted by the 

xxvii 



INTRODUCTION 

author at different stages in the progress of 
his work, has no hesitation in declaring that 
the wide range of the investigations pursued, 
the patient and exhaustive researches, the 
expert knowledge, the critical judgment, and 
the marked literary ability displayed by the 
author, are so unusual as to entitle him to 
distinction. 

The author does more than give interpre- 
tations and express artistic judgments; he 
often goes far afield to anticipate and answer 
inquiries respecting many of the topics treat- 
ed in the body of his monograph. These are 
discussed in detail and in such an entertain- 
ing manner in the Notes that they constitute 
a distinct characteristic of the book, furnish- 
ing sidelights as illuminating as are the abun- 
dant illustrations which adorn the body of 
the text. 

From what has been stated the conclusion 
is inevitable that Mr. Murray has presented 
a study which will compel perusal from cover 
to cover and ensure for the book a very wide 
reading. 

Independent and apart from his description 
and interpretation of what is worth while 
of Black Folk in American Sculpture, his 
obiter dicta, injected here and there through- 
out the monograph, form another excellent 
feature which must evoke admiration and 

xxviii 



INTRODUCTION 

enthusiasm. One may not see the artistic 
technique in the sculpture nor go into ecsta- 
sies over the illustrations, but he can not fail 
to recognize the grandeur of the thoughts 
which technique and illustrations inspire. In 
them there is more than pure intellect ; there 
is warmth of feeling, depth of soul, pro- 
fundity of thought : these attributes charm, 
attract, elevate. 

The topical arrangement to which the 
author has resorted in the presentation of 
his subject makes gradations from the begin- 
ning to the end of the book easy and graceful, 
while the half-tone illustrations — many of 
them first published in this work, — the Ap- 
pendix, the copious and illuminating Notes, 
already referred to, and the Index will facili- 
tate the appreciation of "Emancipation and 
the Freed in American Sculpture" as a 
most worthy contribution to the literature of 
"Black Folk in Art." 

John W. Cromwell 



They cost me much thought, and much strong emo- 
tion, but it was foolish to suppose that I could arouse my 
audiences in a little while to any sympathy with the 
temper into which I had brought myself by years of 
thinking over subjects full of pain. — John Ruskin. 

Referring to his early books, in the second 
edition of his "Sesame and Lilies." 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 
IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 



A STUDY IN INTERPRETATION 

Prior to the breaking out of the Civil War, 
the fine arts in America had not reached a 
consequential position in the art world, and 
sculpture had rather lagged behind painting. 
Only a few American sculptors had made a 
national reputation, and almost none had at- 
tracted attention abroad. 

POWERS' "GREEK SLAVE" 

One of the more noteworthy works which 
had been produced in America before the War 
was Powers' "Greek Slave," which, being one 
of the first American nudes, and for other rea- 
sons aside from what would now be regarded 
as high artistic merit, had attained great pop- 
ularity. It had even been exhibited in London 
— at the Exhibition of 1851 — but its chief 
drawing power there was probably curiosity 
to see that which the Americans had made 
such an ado over. 

[i] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

This statue — which was indeed as well 
"finished" as the sculptor's Italian workmen 
could make it and was "polished" to perfec- 
tion — had one probable reason for its Ameri- 
can popularity which I have not seen noted. 
What I have in mind will suggest itself to you 
when you recall that the anti-slavery agitation 
had already noticeably impressed the general 
public with the evils, cruelties, and brutalities 
connected with slavery as an institution. But 
then, as now, a "white" slave would attract 
more attention and excite far more commiser- 
ation than a black one or one less white than 
"white." Everybody could sympathize with 
the white slave in what Mrs. Browning called 
her "white silence," and anybody could safely 
"take her part" without being suspected of 
endeavoring to stir up strife. And so, whether 
or not we regard the "Greek Slave" as an 
artistic triumph, we must admit that it "took 
well" with the American public. 

The words "white silence" which were used 
a moment ago are taken from the sonnet on 
the statue written by Mrs. Browning the lead- 
ing English poetess at the time the statue was 
was being exhibited in England. The sonnet 
is a scathing — and I think, sarcastic — ar- 
raignment of Powers' American countrymen 
for maintaining slavery here. The last lines 
read: 

[2] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Appeal, fair stone, 
From God's pure heights of beauty against 

man's wrong ! 
Catch up in thy divine face, not alone 
East's griefs, but West's, — and strike and 

shame the strong, 
By thunders of white silence overthrown. 

Hence, whether Powers so intended it or 
not — and he very probably did not — his 
"Greek Slave" may be regarded — permitting 
to me a figure of speech akin to that of 
Mrs. Browning's — as American art's first 
anti-slavery document in marble. 

"FREEDOM" ON THE NATIONAL CAPITOL, 
BY THOMAS CRAWFORD 

Of other more or less notable works pro- 
duced before the War, only one needs to be 
mentioned on this occasion. That one is the 
colossal statue of "Freedom" on the Dome of 
the Capitol at Washington. The sculptor 
called it "Armed Liberty" but the official 
name adopted was "Freedom." However, it is 
popularly known as "Liberty," and by that 
name I shall generally refer to it. 

This statue was modeled by Thomas Craw- 
ford several years before the War but was not 
cast into bronze until about 1861, and it was 
in 1863, after the Emancipation Proclamation 

[3] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

had gone into effect, that it was finally raised 
into its place. 

It is recorded that the head-covering of 
Crawford's first model of this statue was the 
familiar "Liberty cap" which was adopted by 
the French Revolutionists. This form of cap 
is said to have been derived from the Roman 
pileus, the Phrygian cap worn by manumitted 
slaves. Jefferson Davis, who was then Sec- 
retary of War, under whose Department the 
Dome was being constructed, objected to the 
"Liberty cap," holding that it was a symbol 
unsuited to a people who, he claimed, had 
"always" been free. There was quite a con- 
troversy over it and the outcome was the 
head-dress which "Liberty" now wears, which 
has been described in many ways, one de- 
scription — perhaps no more inaccurate than 
the rest — being, "an eagle-shaped helmet with 
a circlet of stars." 

Another interesting matter connected with 
the statue is that while it was being cast into 
bronze at Mill's foundry near Washington the 
Southern states began seceding ; whereupon, 
the white workmen, as Jarves puts it, "turned 
rebel" and a Negro assistant completed the 
work.* 

* "Art Thoughts," p. 313. For another version, see Notes. 

[4] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 
THE "LIBYAN SIBYL," BY W. W. STORY 

The War, or perhaps more correctly, the 
issues which precipitated the conflict and the 
occurrences and results which accompanied 
it and grew out of it, brought to art — both 
pictorial and sculptural — suggestions, ideas, 
and inspiration; and, above all, opportunity 
and freedom. There were things that men 
and women had felt impelled to say; now 
there was no longer reason why they could 
not be said, frankly and expediently. 

Perhaps the first American who said in art 
an important thing as to the issues then pend- 
ing, was William Wetmore Story, a New Eng- 
lander, who, working in Rome, chiseled and 
sent to the London Exhibition of 1862 his fam- 
ous "Cleopatra," and with it a statue whose 
modeling no less than whose message set all 
Europe to looking, talking, and commending. 
This statue he named the "Libyan Sibyl." 

What Story intended to portray may be 
stated in his own words. Writing to his 
friend Charles Eliot Norton, under date of 
August 15, 1861, he said : 

This last winter I finished what I consider as my best 
work — it is so considered by all, I believe — the Libyan 
Sibyl. I have taken the pure Coptic head and figure, the 
great massive, sphinx-like face, full-lipped, long-eyed, low- 
browed, and lowering, and the largely developed limbs of 
the African. She sits on a rock, her legs crossed, lean- 
ing forward, her elbow on her knee and her chin pressed 

[5] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

down upon her hand. The upper part of the figure is 
nude and a rather simple mantle clothes her legs. This 
gave me a grand opportunity for the contrast of the mas- 
ses of the nude with drapery, and I studied the nude with 
great care. It is a very massive figure, big-shouldered, 
large-bosomed, with nothing of the Venus in it, but as 
far as I could make it, luxuriant and heroic. She is look- 
ing out of her large black eyes into futurity and sees the 
fate of her race. This is the theme of the figure — Slav- 
ery on the horizon, and I made her head as melancholy 
and severe as possible, not at all shrinking the African 
type. On the contrary it is thoroughly African — Libyan 
Africa of course, not Congo. This I am now putting into 
marble, and if I can afford it, I shall send it to the new 
Exhibition in London. * 

It will be recalled that this statue was 
modeled during the winter of 1860-61, so that, 
while the Sibyl was indeed meditating and 
brooding over the then terrible condition of 
her people, perhaps we may venture to claim 
that the Sibyl was also viewing prophetically 
the terrible impending conflict on the issue of 
which, the fate of millions of her race so 
largely depended. 

The picture which is shown herewith is 
from a steel engraving of the statue made by 
E. W. Stodart. This engraving appeared in a 
book by William Clark, Jr., entitled "Great 
American Sculptures," published in 1877. In 
this book Clark says of the statue : 

This weird woman of mystery, the child of the desert, 
it is true is not [like Story's "Cleopatra"] a "serpent of 

* "Story and his Friends," by Henry James : Vol. II. p. 70. 

[6] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

the old Nile," but there is about her much of that pent-up 
fiery, energy threatening to burst forth at any moment to 
scorch and consume, which marks the "Cleopatra." The 
mission of the "Sibyl," however, is not to lure men to de- 
struction — she is the custodian of secrets, the secrets of 
the African race. 

And how close she keeps them, with her locked lower 
limbs, her one hand pressing her chin as if to keep in the 
torrent of words that threatens to burst forth, while the 
other grasps a scroll covered with strange characters, 
which would reveal much could we be permitted to de- 
cipher it. On her head is the Ammonite horn — for she 
is a daughter of Jupiter Ammon, and the keeper of his 
oracles, — and on her breast is the ancient symbol of 
mystery, as she sits there brooding and thinking and her 
breast heaving with emotions as she thinks of what is 
past and what is to come. 

Miss Phillips in her book on Story quotes a 
long description and interpretation of the 
statue from the London Athenaeum. It says 
in part : 

The Sibilla Libica has crossed her knees — an action 
universally held amongst the ancients as indicative of 
reticence or secrecy and of power to bind. A secret- 
keeping looking dame she is, in the full-bloom proportions 
of ripe womanhood Her forward elbow is prop- 
ped upon one knee ; and to keep her secrets closer — for 
this Libyan woman is the closest of the Sibyls — she 
rests her shut mouth upon one closed palm as if holding 
the African mystery deep in her brooding brain. She 
looks out through mournful, wavering eyes, under the 
wide shade of the strange horned (Ammonite) crest that 
bears the mystery of the Tetra-gram-maton upon its 
front. Over her full bosom, mother of the myriads as she 

[7] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

was, hangs the same symbol. Her face has a Nubian 
cast, her hair wavy and plaited, as is meet.* 

No doubt many persons who see herewith 
for the first time the picture of this woman 
of "African type" will find her less "African" 
than Story's description would lead them to 
expect. For the popular American conception 
of the African is the type exemplified by the 
more outlandish of the captives brought here 
from the Congo and Niger regions. Seldom 
does any American geography or illustrated 
dictionary or cyclopedia indicate that Africa 
yields any other ethnological fruit, and the 
specimens shown are almost always as outre 
and repulsive as possible. But bear in mind 
that the picture we are reproducing is not a 
photograph made directly from the statue but 
is a steel engraving, and it is not improbable 
that Mr. Stodart when making the engraving 
"favored" the "Sibyl" somewhat. 

Jas. J. Jarves' book, "The Art Idea," publish- 
ed in 1864, was the first extended art criticism 
and interpretation by an American. In this 
book we read (page 281) : 

Unhappily, England has secured the two conceptions, 
Cleopatra and the Libyan Sibyl, which have placed him 
[Story] in European estimation at the head of American 
sculptors. Their greatness consists in the originality of 
thought They are the growth of new art-blood. We 

* "W. W. Story," by Mary E. Phillips 

[8] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

may ethnographically object that Cleopatra, sprung from 
Hellenic blood, could not be African in type. Still it is a 
generous idea, growing out of the spirit of the age, — the 
uplifting of down-trodden races to an equality of chances 
in life with the most favored, — to bestow on one of 
Africa's daughters the possibility of the intellectual power 
and physical attractions of the Greek siren. In harmony 
with the spirit of this statue is the loftier idea of the 
Sibyl, a suggestion, we are told, of Mrs. Harriet Beecher 
Stowe, founded on her knowledge of the runaway slave, 
Sojourner Truth. 

The Sibyl is Africa's prophetic annunciation of her fu- 
ture among nations. Sculpture of this character displays 
a creative imagination and daring of no mean order. 
Born of, yet in some degree forestalling, the great politi- 
cal ideas of the age, it is high art teaching noble truth.* 

The statement by Jarves that this statue 
was suggested by the story of Sojourner Truth 
is made on the authority of Mrs. Stowe her- 
self. Miss Phillips, in her book, quotes Mrs. 
Stowe's statement. She says : 

Upon page 474, Vol. XI of the Atlantic Monthly, in the 
issue of April, 1863, are the following lines from the pen 
of the late Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, upon "Sojourner 
Truth, the Libyan Sibyl." 

After graphically giving the history of this singular, 
strong, sad woman, Mrs. Stowe continues: 

"But though Sojourner Tru*h has passed from among 
iis as a wave of the sea, her memory still lives in one of 

* According to Miss Phillips, four copies of this statue, the 
"Libyan Sibyl," were made. She says that two are Owned 
in London, one in Paris, and one in Boston. Tuckerman, in 
his "Book of the Artists" says six copies were made but he 
fails to locate any of them. (See Note explaining what is 
meant by a "copy" in sculpture.) 

m 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

the loftiest and most original works of modern art, the' 
Libyan Sibyl, by Mr. Story, which attracted so much at- 
tention in the late World's Exhibition.* 

"Some years ago, when visiting Rome, I related Sojourn- 
er's history to Mr. Story at a breakfast at his house. Al- 
ready had his mind begun to turn to Egypt in search of a 
type for art. . . . The history of Sojourner Truth worked 
in his mind and led him into the deeper recesses of the 
African nature — those unexplored depths of being and 
feeling, mighty and dark as the gigantic depths of trop- 
ical forests, mysterious as the hidden rivers and mines 
of that burning continent whose life history is yet to be, 
A few days after he told me that he had conceived the 
idea of a statue which he should call the Libyan Sibyl, 
Two years subsequently I revisited Rome and found the 
gorgeous Cleopatra finished 

"Mr. Story requested me to come and repeat to him 
the history of Sojourner Truth,, saying that the concep- 
tion had never left him. I did so ;. and a day or two after 
he showed me the clay model of the Libyan Sibyl. 
I have never seen the marble statue, but am told by those 
who have that it was by far the most impressive work of 
art at the Exhibition." 

Mr. Story in one of his letters tells of his 
astonishment and gratification at the favor- 
able comments made by the European critics, 
and refers to the prices — tremendous they 
seemed to him — offered for the two statues. 
He had been unable to get either remuner- 
ation or encouragement for his previous work 
in America and had abandoned art as a seri- 
ous business, devoting his time chiefly to the 

♦See Notes. 

[10] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

writing of law books. He also did consider- 
able other literary work. 

Though little has been written about this 
statue in recent years, it is, or ought to be, 
most precious to the people of African descent 
in this land. Its purpose and its history, its 
frankness and its truth, its "personality" one 
might say, should strongly appeal to us. 
These qualities and its loftiness of conception 
with its air of mystery and its suggestion of 
far-reaching possibilities, and finally, its well- 
deserved fame — for, as has been shown, it 
was in foreign eyes America's first great work 
of art— all of these should constrain us to 
echo the expressed wish of Mrs. Stowe, that 
some day it should be one of the adornments 
of our National Capitol. If it does not become 
that, let us hope that some person or some or- 
ganization among us will be prompted to 
make an effort to secure at least one copy of 
this work and see to its placing in one of our 
institutions of learning — say, Howard Uni- 
versity at Washington City — or at some 
place where our people "do most gather," as 
an assurance of our appreciation and discern- 
ing comprehension and as an earnest of our 
purpose to encourage and foster in our own 
the higher callings, and especially not to neg- 
lect the imaginative and emotional art-power 



[ii] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

with which we are admittedly so exceptionally 
endowed. 

Here would seem to be a fitting work for 
one or more of our Colored Women's Clubs 
or Federations of Clubs; for, so far as I am 
aware, not in all art, ancient or modern, 
American or foreign, is there a master-piece 
nobler in conception and more unreservedly 
complimentary to our race, and to our women 
especially, than is William Wetmore Story's 
"Libyan Sibyl." 

THE "FREEDMAN," BY J. Q. A. WARD 

While Europe and America were talking 
of this work of Mr. Story, the Emancipation 
Proclamation took effect and American Art 
added its approval and ratification. John 
Quincy Adams Ward, a sculptor, not perhaps 
then famous but already well known, sent to 
an exhibition in New York (in 1863) his mod- 
est, unostentatious "Freedman." This again 
set the art world to talking and to praising. 
This was a statuette only twenty inches high 
but it embodied large ideas. As to its mean- 
ing and significance, Jarves said (in 1864) : 

Completely original in itself, a genuine inspiration of 
American history, noble in thought and lofty in senti- 
ment A naked slave has burst his shackles, and 

with uplifted face thanks God for freedom. We have 
seen nothing in our sculpture more soul -lifting or more 

[12] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

comprehensively eloquent. It tells in one word the whole 
sad story of slavery and the bright story of emanci- 
pation.* 

The "Freedman," like many other great 
works of art and profound literary composi- 
tions, reveals itself differently to different 
minds and temperaments. These differences 
of interpretation — these varying responses of 
individual souls — are inherent in that which 
is profound and sublime. "My thoughts are 
not your thoughts, neither are my ways your 
ways, saith the Lord" ; and the more pro- 
found and God-like the working of the mind 
of an individual at a given time, the more the 
quotation applies to that mind as contrasted 
with the minds of the multitude. Few of us 
can canter through Milton and Dante, or 
through Shakespeare and Browning, as we 
do through Dickens and Stevenson. Not that 
Dickens and Stevenson are not "great" in 
certain ways, for they are. Ward, whose 
"Freedman" we are discussing, is also great in 
his "Indian Hunter" in Central Park, New 
York, and in his equestrian statue of General 
Thomas in Washington, although neither of 
these purports to be profound. But the 
"Freedman" was conceived in a different 
mood and under different conditions ; and, 
simple as it superficially appears, there is no 

* "Art Idea." page 284 

[13] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

work in American sculpture which has a high- 
er claim to be profound. Thus, while Jarves 
saw in the "Freedman" an uplifted face thank- 
ing God for freedom, another American critic, 
at a later date, saw something different. 
Charles C. Caffin, in his book, "American 
Masters of Sculpture," (published in 1903) says 
of it (page 44) : 

It shows simply a Negro, in an entirely natural pose, 
who has put forth his strength and is looking very quiet- 
ly at the broken fetters. The whole gist of the matter 
is thus embodied in the most terse and direct fashion, 
without rodomontade or sentimentality but solely as an 
objective fact into which there is no intrusion of the 
sculptor's personal feeling. 

Caffin' s description of the statue is correct 
enough but in his comment he seems to go 
entirely too far when he says that Ward kept 
out of it his "personal feeling." It would 
probably be more correct to say that Ward 
put into it as much as he could of his personal 
feeling, having regard for artistic considera- 
tions and for his habitual, self-imposed re- 
straint. Notice a little further on what Mr. 
Taft says as to the "emotion" that Ward 
wrought into it. 

There are other interpretations which stress 
certain of the ideas already noted and sug- 
gest others. Tuckerman, in his "Book of the 



[14] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Artists," (published in 1882) quotes an un- 
named "intelligent writer" as saying of this 
statuette (page 581) : 

Here is the simple figure of a semi-nude negro, sitting, 
it may be on the steps of the Capitol, a fugitive, resting 
his arms upon his knees, his head turned eagerly piercing 
into the distance for his ever-vigilant enemy, his hand 
grasping his broken manacles v/ith an energy that bodes 
no good to his pursuers. A simple story, simply and 
most plainly told. 

So much for the story which this intelligent 
writer reads from this statuette. He also sees 
much to admire on the physical side. He con- 
tinues : 

There is no departure from the negro type. It shows 
the black man as he runs today. It is no abstraction or 
bit of metaphysics that needs to be labelled or explained. 
It is a fact not a fancy. He is all African. With a true 
and honest instinct, Mr. Ward has gone among the race 
and from the best specimens, with wonderful patience and 
perseverance, has selected and combined, and from this 
race alone erected a noble figure — a form that might 
challenge the admiration of the ancient Greek. It is a 
mighty expression of stalwart manhood, which now, 
thanks to the courage and genius of the artist, stands 
-forth for the first time to assert in the face of the world's 
prejudices, that, with the best of them he has at least an 
equal physical conformation. 

But this statuette, although frank, almost 
brusk, in its realism — and seemingly simple 
as is the story that it tells — portrays and 
suggests, it appears to me, more than has 

[15] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

been stated ; more even than is set forth by 
the writer last quoted. It is not difficult to 
see prophecy as well as history in its form, 
pose, and accessories ; and even more, per- 
haps, in its lack of accessories. Indeed, if 
Mr. Ward were living now, fifty years after 
Emancipation, he could scarcely state the case 
more truly. The freedman's shackles are 
broken it is true, but still he is partially fet- 
tered; still un-clothed with the rights and 
prerogatives which freedom is supposed to 
connote — a "Freedman" but not a free-man. 

Observe that the "Freedman" still grasps 
several links of his chain. May we not think 
of some of these links as: separation — in 
schools, in public places, in social life; ex- 
clusion from political life ; a curtailed school 
curriculum purportedly adapted to his special 
needs and limited capacities; etc? To these 
links he — or at anyrate a considerable part of 
his posterity — yet clings with a fearsome, 
fatuous hope that in some way they may serve 
his supposed "special" needs; may possibly 
be "useful" when he attempts to stand erect 
and make his way forward. 

Jarves thinks the "Freedman" looks heaven- 
ward with thankfulness, and Caffin thinks that 
he is looking very quietly at the broken fet- 
ters ; but most of us, like the writer quoted by 
Tuckerman; may be able, in the light of the 

[16] 



-a, / 




1. The Greek Slave, statue, 
by Hiram Powers 




»~S^* 




2. Freedom, statue, on Dome 
of the National Capitol, 
by Thomas Crawford 




3. The Libyan Sibyl, statue, by W. W. Story 




4. The Freedman, statuette, by J. Q. A. Ward 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

present, to see in his look determination 
mixed with anxiety and foreboding. But 
whatever his attitude may mean and his 
expression may be intended to indicate, 
we may apply to him, objectively, the words 
of Wilberforce: "You have set him free but 
you still compel him to wear the prison 
garb." 

Lorado Taft, in his comprehensive book, 
"History of American Sculpture" (published 
in 1903), though erroneously giving the date 
of the appearance of this statuette as 1865, 
(instead of 1863) makes some sympathetic and 
thoughtful statements concerning it, one of 
which is : "This statuette is as notable for its 
containment as for its more technical excel- 
lences." Mr. Taft also quotes from Sturgis, 
who, he says, "has pointed out that it js 
'curiousfy characteristic of the man [Ward] 
and his whole future way of work ; for while 
expressing the idea of the slave who has bro- 
ken his fetters, it represents simply a negro 
in an entirely natural and every-day pose — a 
man who has put forth his strength and is 
looking very quietly at the results/ " Mr. 
Taft also goes on to say (page 221) : 

Mr. Sturgis calls attention, also, to the fact that the 
sculptor has interested himself in a truly modern fashion 
in the physical peculiarities of his subject. The racial 
characteristics are certainly emphasized as they had not 

[17] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

been previously in American sculpture. But while we 
of the present, please ourselves in analysing the littie 
figure, calmly dissecting its anatomy, it had quite a 
different appeal in the days of stress and struggle 
which gave it birth. We read Mr. jarves' contemporary 
comments, and wonder if we have grown callous : are we 
missing all that is best in these things ? . . . . Little can 
we of a younger generation appreciate the emotion 
which was wrought into this souvenir of the great 
Rebellion. 

We of this day who perfunctorily think of 
and speak of the slaves as "set free by Mr. 
Lincoln," may be inclined to stumble at the 
sculptor's idea that the black man "put forth 
his strength" and broke, or even assisted to 
break, his fetters. But the "Freedman" was 
conceived and modeled in a time of "stress 
and struggle," while the burial parties were 
gathering the dead black soldiers from a half- 
dozen bloody battle grounds, including Port 
Hudson and Fort Wagner, and two-hundred 
thousand more black men were rallying be- 
neath the Flag whose triumph they hoped 
and believed would insure their freedom. 
Mr. Ward and many others then living had 
been witnesses of, and participants in, the 
agitations and struggles, the sacrifices and 
martyrdoms, which had culminated in the 
war then raging and which had prepared 
the way for the Emancipation Proclamation. 
These men well knew that in the struggles 

[18] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

and even in the martyrdoms, black mzn had 
borne conspicuous and noble parts. 

To John Quincy Adams Ward and the 
large-hearted and appreciative men of that 
day, it would have seemed dissembling and 
mockery to have spoken of merely "bestow- 
ing" freedom on the quarter-million blacks 
who, at that very time, were valiantly doing 
their share, willingly even eagerly, that "a 
government of the people, for the people, and 
by the people should not perish from the 
earth." It was not until a later time, as we 
shall see, that men, including sculptors, could 
read into Mr. Lincoln's Proclamation, or sub- 
stitute in it, such words as "charity" and "be- 
nevolence" where Mr. Lincoln had said : "an 
act of justice, and upon military necessity." 

It is not surprising that Mr. Ward was 
obliged to make a few replicas of his modest 
but eloquent little "Freedman." But soon the 
demand became so great that a company 
of metal founders began turning out the stat- 
uettes in bronze by the dozens ; though at a 
cost of several hundred dollars each. It is 
almost unbelievable that so simple and un- 
ostentatious a figure — which portrayed but 
did not caricature the Negro — should have 
made such a powerful appeal to the parents 
of the present generation. 

[19] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 
THE "FREEDWOMAN," BY EDMONIA LEWIS 

As the War was drawing to a close, an en- 
tirely new and unexpected star burst forth in 
the firmament of American art in the person 
of Edmonia Lewis, a young woman of Indian 
and Negro blood. Her first work made public 
appearance in 1865 at a fair in Boston for the 
benefit of the Soldiers' Aid Fund. It was a 
portrait bust of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, 
who had lost his life in the assault on Fort 
Wagner, in July, 1863, on which occasion his 
Negro regiment, the 54th Massachusetts, won 
immortal fame. 

Miss Lewis afterward did much meritorious 
work, but this occasion will permit only one 
piece to be discussed. So, too, we must defer 
going into a history of her life and career. It 
may be permissible, however, to state that she 
was educated at Oberlin College in Ohio ; and 
hence those sketches of her which assume or 
imply that she was wholly untutored or igno- 
rant, are misleading. One of these erroneous 
stories relates that on her first visit to Boston 
(about 1864 or 1865) she saw a statue of Ben- 
jamin Franklin which it is said, "filled her 
with amazement and delight." The story 
goes on to relate that she did not know by 
what name to call the "stone image," and that 
she thereupon said to herself, "I, too, can 

[20] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

make a stone man," etc.* In view of the fact 
that she had previously attended the college 
named for nearly or quite four years (from 
1859 to 1863), this story is so extremely im- 
probable that we may confidently claim that 
it is untrue. It may be further said of Miss 
Lewis that she ranked at least as high as a 
sculptress as any American woman up to her 
time. 

It was in 1867 that Miss Lewis brought out 
a statue which comes directly within the 
scope of the subject we are treating. She 
called it the "Freedwoman." Although I have 
made diligent efforts (which have not ceased) 
I have not been able to locate this statue nor 
to obtain a picture of it. In Clarke's "Great 
American Sculptures" it is thus described 
(page 142) : 

She [the "Freedwoman"] was represented as over- 
come by a conflict of emotions on receiving tidings of her 
liberation and the pathos of the situation was interpreted 
in a sympathetic spirit. 

Those who know the conditions affecting 
the Freed people which were prevailing in 
1867, when this statue was modeled, will not 
find it difficult to imagine what would be the 



* Article (letter) in "The Revolution," (N. Y.) for Apr, 
20, 1871, probably by the editor, Laura Curtis Bullard. This 
article has been widely quoted and accepted. 

[21] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

nature of the conflicting emotions which this 
sculptress would herself feel and would there- 
fore, consciously or unconsciously, embody in 
this figure. 

This cultured young artist, though descend- 
ed from the two races mentioned, was yet by 
American custom identified wholly with the 
Negro. Hence she must needs see and feel 
for her "Freedwoman" what it was almost or 
quite impossible that Ward should feel when 
modeling his "Freedman," admirable though 
it was. Not only were there racial differences 
in the artists but the times in which they 
worked were different, surprisingly different 
for so few intervening years. When Miss 
Lewis was modeling her "Freedwoman," in 
1867, reaction — reenslavement, I had almost 
said — had set in. If, perchance, Mr. Ward 
and other sincere and absorbed souls had not 
observed it, Miss Lewis and "her people" had 
felt it. The Sun of Emancipation which had 
risen in 1863, had seemingly reached its ze- 
nith in 1865 with the passage of the 13th 
Amendment prohibiting slavery. But already 
it was being obscured by clouds. Already the 
sheriff's hand-cuffs were taking the place of 
the former master's chains ; already the chain- 
gang stockade was supplanting the old slave 
pen. Another constitutional amendment, the 
14th, was being pushed to bolster up the 

[22] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

13th. The freedwoman was being told that it 
would be better for her children, even in the 
North, to go to "separate" schools ; and that it 
would be better, "for a while, anyway," for 
her people not to "thrust" themselves forward 
too much but to accept "separation" on public 
conveyances and in public places. She was 
being gravely assured that there was no deg- 
radation nor detriment in all of this. "Of 
course," she was being told with a cajoling 
smile, "your people will be more 'comfortable' 
to have churches and a social circle all your 
own: public sentiment, you see, is not yet 
ripe enough : you know youv'e got to be- 
gin at the bottom": etc., etc. 

Miss Lewis, being an intelligent and edu- 
cated woman, could not help seeing, and feel- 
ing, and interpreting. So, while she was pur- 
porting to portray the freedwoman as of the 
time when she received tidings of her libera- 
tion — which was in 1863, when the "quiet" 
and "thankful" "Freedman" came out — yet it 
was impossible that the conditions prevailing 
and threatening at the time — 1867 — as well 
as her own feelings and emotions, should not 
find some expression in Miss Lewis' work. 
And so, necessarily and rightly, she portrayed 
her "Freedwoman" as "overcome by a conflict 
of emotions." 



[23] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

"EMANCIPATION," FIGURE, DETROIT, 
BY RANDOLPH ROGERS 

A figure which merits special mention is the 
graciously noble "Emancipation" by Randolph 
Rogers which is one of the nine figures which 
embellish the Soldiers' and Sailers' Monument 
in Detroit, unveiled in 1873. 

This Rogers (another will be mentioned) is 
best known for his famous bronze doors and 
their frame at the eastern entrance to the 
Rotunda of the Capitol at Washington. (One 
of the figures on the frame of these doors will 
be discussed further on.) 

Mr. Taft refers to Rogers' work on this 
Detroit monument, especially the figure of 
"Michigan" at the top, as "almost inspired." 

There are four allegorical female figures. 
A letter from Miss Helen L. Earle of the 
Michigan State Library says that these figures 
symbolize : "Victory," "Union," "History," and 
"Emancipation." Of these figures, Mr. Taft 
says : " 'Emancipation' in particular is worthy 
of study, an African type idealized and treat- 
ed heroically." 

The picture shown herewith was made 
from a photograph which my friend Francis 
H. Warren, Esq., had taken for me just after 
Sun-up, seeking to get a good light effect. He 
says, in a letter to me, of "Emancipation," : 

[24] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

She sits there upon terms of equality with her white 
sisters on this everlasting monument, each extending 
benign blessings upon the heroic form of a soldier just 
below her: the lady of color being in the act of placing 
two wreaths, one in each hand. 

It will hardly escape notice that, of the 
three,* "Emancipation" appears to be the most 
absorbed and earnest. The other female fig- 
ures are pleasing and well-modeled but there 
is about them a suggestion of affectation ; their 
wreaths are held rather listlessly or daintily ; 
and they are otherwise lacking in appeal. In 
fact, as a lady looking at the picture remarked 
to me, "they look much like they might be 
merely watching a parade pass by." Perhaps 
their tameness would not be so apparent but 
for the exceptional vigor and power of the 
"Emancipation" figure. 

Miss Earle in her letter remarks that the 
work of Rogers is uneven. It undoubtedly is 
markedly uneven on this monument, not only 
in these female figures but in other respects. 
(It should be borne in mind, however, that un- 
evenness is a very common if not a universal 
fault in artists.) But Rogers, in his concep- 
tion and execution of this "lady of color," has 
surely reached a high level. 

In this case, it would be perilous and un- 
gracious, also, to undertake to interpret too 

* The three shown in the picture. 
[25] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

closely. Suffice it, that "Emancipation," as 
one of the beneficiaries of the work and sac- 
rifices of these military heroes whom she i& 
assisting to honor, has, like the woman who* 
anointed the Savior with the precious oint- 
ment, "done what she could." And nowhere 
in American art, not even in the "Libyan 
Sibyl," has a daughter of Africa been more 
graciously "idealized and treated heroically." 

"EMANCIPATION," GROUP, WASHINGTON 
AND BOSTON, BY THOMAS BALL 

A group by Thomas Ball calls for particular 
consideration and analysis. Mr. Ball was well 
known through several fine works — one, an 
equestrian statue of General Washington in 
Boston — when, in 1865, he made a striking: 
half -life-size group showing "Lincoln and a 
Kneeling Slave." Later this was "expanded" 
into the "Emancipation" group in Lincoln 
Park, Washington, set up in 1876. This en- 
larged group was paid for with money con- 
tributed by former slaves. A replica of this 
large group was made for and set up in 
Boston, a gift to the city by the Hon. Moses 
Kimball, one the citizens. 

The popularity of this group — the fact that 
it is repeatedly used in an illustrative and 
pictorial way as the very exemplification and 

[26] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

symbol of "the Emancipation" — is conclusive 
evidence of the need of an "enlarged vision," 
and of greater circumspection and care in an* 
alysis and interpretation. 

Mr. Taft enthuses over this group. He says 
(page 145) : 

His [Ball's] conception of Lincoln is a lofty one. . . . « 
One of the inspired works of American sculpture; a 
great theme expressed with emotion by an artist of 
intelligence and sympathy, who felt what he was doing. 

Mr. Ball's life and works — particularly his 
intimate portrayal of his inmost ideas and 
sympathies as they are set forth in his book, 
"My Three-score Years and Ten," and this 
group itself, in the light of its original purpose 
and its time — all tend to prove that Mr. Ball, 
indeed, "felt what he was doing." And yet 
from what has gone before, it need occasion 
no surprise for me to say that I regard this 
group, considering it as an "Emancipation" 
group, as far less adequate than it has been 
popularly regarded. 

We may concede with Mr. Taft that the 
conception of Lincoln in certain respects is 
lofty, but the group as a whole is an unsatis- 
factory representation — repeating and insist- 
ing that we are now considering it under its 
adopted name, "Emancipation." 

The sculptor has given to the figures in this 
group attitudes and expressions which are too 

[27] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

strongly suggestive of the conventional rep- 
resentations of Jesus and the Magdalene. In 
fact, Ball has come perilously near making 
Mr. Lincoln appear to be saying : "Go, and sin 
no more," or, "Thy sins be forgiven thee." 

As for the kneeling — or is it crouching ? — 
figure, his attitude and expression indicate no 
elevated emotion, or any apparent apprecia- 
tion of the duties and responsibilities of his 
new position and little if any conception of 
the dignity and power of his own personality 
and manhood, now first recognized and re- 
spected by others. He seems to have a hazy 
idea that he is, more or less, or maybe is about 
to be made, free, but it appears probable that 
introspectively, he is yet a "kneeling slave." 
In his attitude he more exemplifies a man 
who perhaps has escaped extreme punish- 
ment by commutation of sentence, * than a 
man who feels that he is one of those who, as 
the Declaration of Independence expresses it, 
"are, and of right ought to be free" ! If he 
should speak, he would probably murmur, 
dubiously and querulously, "0 Mr. Lincoln ! 

am I ? " Whereas, Ward's "Freedman" 

plainly and somewhat resolutely says : "Well 
Sir ; you see I am." 

* A large iron bail, with attached chain and ankle fet- 
ters such, as convicts frequently carry, but which slaves 
in America seldom or never did. gives added color to the 
convict idea. 

[28] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

It should be borne in mind, however, that 
this group by Ball was not modeled originally 
as an "Emancipation" group, but was called, 
as has been stated, "Lincoln and a Kneeling 
Slave."* Ball's chief fault, if fault it was, 
consisted in his consent to its use as a rep- 
resentation or symbolization of Emancipation. 
However, in his book, before mentioned, Mr. 
Ball indicates that his part in the matter was 
merely to enlarge the original half-life-size 
group to its present size — about nine feet 
high — on the order of the Freedmen's Me- 
morial Association which planned to erect it 
as a memorial to Mr. Lincoln. 

In a booklet which relates the occurrences 
and ceremonies attendant on the presentation 
and dedication of the Boston replica, there is 
a statement, descriptive and interpretative of 
the group. The author of the statement is 
not named, nor are the sources of the in- 
formation stated. However, internal eviden- 
ces indicate that not all of it, if any, was de- 
rived directly from the sculptor himself. We 
read: 

The work was conceived and executed by Mr. Ball, 
under the first influence of the news of Mr. Lincoln's 
assassination. 

The original group was in Italian marble, and differs 

* Ball, in his book, "My Threescore Years and Ten," 
refers to the group as, "Lincoln and a liberated slave." 

[29] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

in some respects from the bronze group. In the original 
the kneeling slave is represented as perfectly passive, 
receiving the boon of freedom from the hand of the 
great liberator. But the artist has justly changed all 
this, to bring the presentation nearer to the historical 
fact, by making the emancipated slave an agent in his 
own deliverance. He is represented as exerting his own 
strength, with strained muscles, in breaking the chain 
which had bound him. A greater degree of dignity and 
vigor, as well as of historical accuracy, is thus imparted. 

The booklet from which I have quoted was 
loaned to me by Miss Helen F. Kimball whose 
father presented the group to the city of 
Boston in 1879, three years after the Washing- 
ton group was put in place. 

There is no gainsaying Mr. Kimball's noble 
motives, for he was a high-minded patriot and 
a consistent friend of the Freed people. In 
his proffer of the group to the city, he refers 
to it as one "emblematical of Emancipation" ; 
the same group which had been erected in 
Washington by the ex-slaves' organization 
as a memorial to Mr. Lincoln. 

Of course, there is no inherent reason why 
a group, properly designed, might not answer 
for both the purposes named. But the above 
quotation clearly indicates that at the time 
the original group was being "expanded," its 
inadequacy, even as incidentally a symboliza- 
tion of Emancipation, had been recognized. 
But it must be admitted that the group, at 

[30] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

least in its altered form, regarded merely as 
a memorial to Mr. Lincoln, is much less open 
to objections. Yet, considered simply as a 
memorial, it would have been improved per- 
haps by removing the naked slave altogether. 

Coming back to the description above quo- 
ted, it would appear to be more nearly a state- 
ment of intentions and desires than of actual 
accomplishments, so far as the enumerated 
alterations are concerned. I have not been 
able to see a picture of the original marble (?) 
group so cannot determine to what extent it 
was changed. But whatever alterations were 
actually made, viewing the group as it now 
stands, it requires a pretty strong pull on the 
imagination to find warrant for the claim that 
the slave is "exerting his own strength with 
strained muscles." If, indeed, such action or 
its results, were obvious, or, we may say, a 
litttle more obvious, visually, the acceptability 
of the group would be greatly enhanced. 

There still remain unmentioned, certain ob- 
jections to the group, but these have little to 
do with interpretation. To mention these 
supposed faults here might tend to make all 
my criticisms seem captious if not presump- 
tious ; and probably they will be so regarded 
by some persons. As it is, I have tried within 
reasonable limits to justify the criticisms that 
I have thought should be made, for it would 

[31] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

be little less than presumption if I were dog- 
matically to assume to rule out wholly these 
admittedly striking and appealing groups in 
Washington and Boston, which so many of 
my fellow-citizens and fellow-sufferers have 
so highly regarded if not revered. 

"EMANCIPATION," GROUP, EDINBURGH, 
BY GEORGE E. BISSELL 

Another Lincoln monument or group, by 
George Edwin Bissell, is somewhat similar to 
Ball's, and it too bears as a sort of sub-title 
the name "Emancipation." 

This monument stands in the old Calton 
Burying Ground in Edinburgh, Scotland. It 
was erected primarily, as is stated on the 
base of the pedestal, "In Honor of Scottish- 
American Soldiers," who served on the side 
of the North in the American Civil War. It 
was unveiled in 1893. 

The group — if we may call it a group — is, 
in conception, a distinct improvement upon 
Ball's, especially if we regard both as "Eman- 
cipation" groups. In Bissell's group, Mr. 
Lincoln is a recipient not a bestower. At any 
rate, his own recognition of his benignity is 
not so manifest as in Ball's group. He stands 
quietly and composedly, holding the Procla- 
mation in his right hand. His left hand is 

[32] 




5. The Freedwoman (or Freedom), group, by Edmonia 

Lewis 




6. Military Monument, Detroit, by Randolph Rogers 




7. Emancipation, figure, on Military Monument, 
Detroit, by Randolph Rogers 




8. Emancipation, group, Washington and Boston, by 

Thomas Ball 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

behind him, instead of being — as in Ball's 
group — extended as if in blessing or bene- 
diction. An inscription on the pedestal of the 
Edinburgh group enhances the general effect. 
The words are a quotation or a paraphrase of 
a statement attributed to Mr. Lincoln. They 
read: 

TO PRESERVE THE JEWEL OF LIBERTY 
IN THE FRAMEWORK OF FREEDOM 

Since Mr. Bissell is one of our foremost 
sculptors, it is scarcely necessary to state 
that the work is excellently wrought — a 
great credit to his hand, his head, and his 
heart. 

As before stated, I regard this group by 
Bissell as a distinct improvement over Ball's; 
an improvement both in what it shows and in 
what it omits. This view, however, implies 
no disparagement of Ball's, considering the 
conditions under which Ball made his original 
model. But in 1893 when Bissell was design- 
ing his group, nearly thirty years had elapsed 
and conditions permitted a broader outlook. 
Emancipation as an event and Mr. Lincoln as 
an individual could be contemplated more 
rationally and soberly. At mention of his 
name, the paramount thoughts were no longer 
of a deliverer and martyr but rather of a 
level-headed, far-sighted but patient, and su- 
premely patriotic statesman : an accomplisher 

[33] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

of great things rather than a bestower of large 
benevolences. 

And in 1893 it could be realized that Eman- 
cipation was not wholly the personal work of 
Mr. Lincoln; and it could be seen that, while 
Emancipation was in scope an almost un- 
parallelled benevolence it was, nevertheless, 
an act of supreme duty and one of para- 
mount importance as an aid in securing a 
justifiable end. At that distance of time, it 
could also be realized that Emancipation had 
been, and was destined to be, not so much an 
immediate and unmitigated blessing as a 
gradually unfolding opportunity. 

So Bissell's Freedman is neither dazed nor 
exultant. He is, nevertheless, appreciative 
and thankful, especially to the man who was 
"leader and voice" in the tremendous struggle 
which brought about his liberation and which, 
he believed, had secured his freedom — from 
the grosser forms of oppression at least. 

But at the time Ball was conceiving and 
executing his original group, in 1865, the 
Nation was so chastened by the awful horrors 
of the struggle just closed ; was so saddened 
and overwhelmed by the untimely assassina- 
tion of Mr. Lincoln, that almost unconsciously 
in the public mind he was regarded as a 
vicarious sacrifice for the sins of the people. 
He was, in a sense, almost deified. Such rep- 

[34] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

resentations of him as Bissell gave us in 1893 
and Saint Gaudens gave us a few years later 
in his Chicago statue, would have seemed in 
1865 inadequate and cold if not sacrilegious. 

Yet our changed attitude of mind and con- 
sequent changed manner of portrayal of this 
great and noble man are not due to a growing 
callousness but to a deeper comprehension. 
And, moreover, in this case as in many others 
we observe that sculpture is responding to 
the later and higher canons of art, one of the 
more insistent of which is restraint. * 

Since the above was written, I have gotten 
into communication with Mr. Bissell who 
kindly sent me an outline of what he intended 
to represent and to suggest by his Edinburgh 
Memorial. 

From his letter it appears that he essayed 
to do what the "Old Masters" often did, that 
is, to cover two different periods of time in 
one picture — one group in this case. 

I have said group, although Mr. Bissell in- 
dicates that he tried to so dissociate the two 
figures that they would not appear to be so 

* Saint Gaudens* "Lincoln" in Chicago is perhaps justly 
regarded as not only the greatest "Lincoln" hut the 
greatest portrait statue in the country. He has carried 
"restraint" further even than Bissell— carried it perhaps 
to its utmost limit. In the Saint Gaudens figure, Mr. 
Lincoln is standing with his head howed slightly forward; 
one hand is behind him and the other holds to the lapel 
of his open coat. His attitude is one of quiet meditation. 

[35] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

closely and personally connected that each 
might not denote or support a different time 
and thought. 

Here I shall take the liberty to use a few of 
Mr. Bissell's own words; they are so noble 
and illumining. 

He [Mr. Lincoln] holds the Emancipation Proclamation 
in his hand and is looking forward with the certitude 
born of the spirit which knows that the humane and 
noble cause for which he and the people are ready to 
make "the last great sacrifice of devotion" would assur- 
edly triumph. 

On the other hand, as had seemed probable, 
Mr. Bissell has conceived the Freedman as of 
a somewhat later time — "a sturdy man; self- 
reliant, and equal to the duties and responsi- 
bilities of citizenship" : though clearly his 
opportunities have been and are yet greatly 
circumscribed. The Freedman is not merely 
thanking Mr. Lincoln, though he is "full of 
gratitude," but — 

with an impulsive gesture he calls the attention of the 
world to the man who was the author of the freedom of 
his race, and is an exemplar for all rulers and law-makers 
that may follow. 

Thus Mr. Bissell has attempted to project 
the Freedman's appreciation and his fellow- 
citizens' acclaim, forward to "all generations." 
The intention is truly noble and lofty, and the 
conception approaches the sublime. 

[36] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

"EMANCIPATION," PANEL, CLEVELAND, 
BY LEVI T. SCOFIELD 

One of the largest and most magnificent of 
the many Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorials in 
the country is the one in Cleveland, Ohio. The 
architect and sculptor was Levi T. Scofield. 
It is a noble and beautiful achievement. It is 
of the same general type as several others, in- 
cluding the great Lincoln Memorial at Spring- 
field, Illinois. It was dedicated July 4, 1894. 

In this monument, a tall shaft rises from 
the centre of a rather large and ornate struct- 
ure, enclosing a large room, on the walls of 
which are tablets, reliefs, medallions, etc. On 
pedestal bases, detached from the main cen- 
tral structure, are four large bronze groups 
representing the various arms of the military 
service : Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery, and the 
Navy, respectively. 

Of these groups, the one representing the 
Navy is of special interest in this connection. 
It really portrays "Mortar Practice" on a 
Mississippi River gunboat. In the group are 
six men. The man who handles the swab is 
a stalwart Nergo, in whom the characteristic 
racial features and traits are fully brought 
out, if not emphasized. 

Among the sculptured panels in the interior 
of the basic structure, one represents "The 

[37] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

Emancipation of the Slave." The matter is 
here represented in a very commendable and 
inspiring manner, although, from a technical 
standpoint, Scofieid's work as a sculptor (he 
is primarily an architect) is not rated high. 

On the "Emancipation" panel, Mr. Lincoln 
occupies a central position, standing. He is 
flanked, two on each side, by four of Ohio's 
leading sons who were among those who 
advised, even urged, Mr. Lincoln to take the 
great step; holding it to be "constitutional, 
just, and expedient." These men are : Salmon 
P. Chase and John Sherman ; Benjamin Wade 
and Joshua R. Giddings. In the background 
are the dimly outlined forms of the Union 
armies and navy, standing ready to ratify and 
enforce the action of the President. 

Mr. Lincoln holds aloft the shackles with 
his right hand. His left hand is extended, 
holding a musket and accoutrements. The 
musket is also grasped by the left hand of the 
Freedman, who rests on one knee, while his 
right hand is upraised, taking the soldier's 
oath. We can easily imagine him repeating 
the words of the oath and then adding some 
such words as those of the Negro color- 
sergeant at Port Hudson : "I'll bring back 
these colors in honor, Sir, or report to God 
the reason why." 



[38] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

This splendid memorial, with its double 
recognition and doubly creditable recognition 
of Black Folk, is characteristic and represent- 
ative of the spirit of Liberty and Equality 
which has always pervaded and dominated 
Ohio's "Western Reserve," and Cleveland, its 
virtual capital. 

Furthermore; when we remember that, of 
the numerous productions of American art — 
including sculpture, painting, and especially 
illustration — in which Black Folk are depict- 
ed, far the greater number are insidious be- 
littlement or plain caricature or worse; this 
panel by Scofield must grow in our regard; 
for it partakes of none of these : nor is it one 
of that other class of productions which, while 
not exactly offensive or irritating, yet, when 
we view them, incline us to say to our- 
selves : "Well, yes ; that's correct, I suppose, 

but — r 

PROPOSED LINCOLN MEMORIAL, 
BY CLARK MILLS 

Shortly after the Civil War closed, an un- 
official and voluntary organization undertook 
to erect in Washington City what was to be 
an elaborate and imposing National Memorial 
to President Lincoln. 

Clark Mills — who was the sculptor of the 
well-known statue of General Andrew Jackson 

[39] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

on the rearing steed — was chosen to design 
the memorial. 

The organization experienced difficulty in 
raising funds ; nevertheless, Mills made a de- 
sign for the memorial which was approved. 
This called for a structure seventy feet high, 
embellished with thirty-five colossal figures in 
bronze, also relief panels, etc. 

Although this memorial was not actually 
constructed, and almost certainly never will 
be, its design is interesting. 

A very little study of it shows that the 
emancipation of the slaves was regarded as 
Mr. Lincoln's most notable achievement. In 
fact, although the organization which intend- 
ed to erect this memorial was named "The 
Lincoln Monument Association," the domi- 
nant purpose appeared to be, — quoting the 
charter — "for the purpose of erecting a monu- 
ment in the city of Washington commemo- 
rative of the great charter of Emancipation 
and universal liberty in America." * 

So far as I can learn, no work was done on 
the granite pedestal, and only one bronze 
figure was cast (about 1881) ; + but it appears 
that the memorial as a whole was modeled in 
clay or in plaster, probably on a reduced 
scale. 

* See article in Washington Sunday Star, Feb'y 7, 1915 
t "American Art Review," 1881, page 131 

[40] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Our picture was made from a photograph 
of this model. Apparently it was photograph- 
ed with a picture of the Capitol as a back- 
ground. * 

The following description of the proposed 
monument is printed on the back of the 
photograph. 

The pedestal to be of granite, and figures bronze. The 
whole structure to be seventy feet, surmounted by thirty- 
five colossal figures. Its construction triangular ; the 
base of which admits three groups, presenting slavery. 

The first (to the right) presents the slave in his most 
abject state, as when brought to this country. Here we 
behold him nude, deprived of all which tends to elate the 
heart with any spirit of pride or independence. 

The second represents a less abject stage. He is here 
partly clad, more enlightened, and hence, realizing his 
bondage, startles with a love of Freedom. 

The third (behind) is the ransomed slave, redeemed 
from bondage by the blood of Liberty, who, having 
struck off his shackles, holds them triumphantly aloft. 
The slave is pictured bowing gratefully at her feet. 

Between these groups are three bass reliefs. First 
represents the firing on Fort Sumter. The other two 
present the Senate and House amending the Constitution. 

The second story, first group, represents the members 
of the Cabinet in council ; while Seward points towards 
Europe, as though explaining the importance of the act. 

The second group, officers of the Navy and prominent 

* The photograph is a stereograph, copyrighted by the 
sculptor. It was Irindly loaned for this illustration by Mr. 
Henry A. Vale, Secretary of the Lincoln Memorial Com- 
mission which has charge of the Memorial which is now 
being erected in Washington by Governmental authority. 

[41] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

Union men who stood by the President during the War. 

The third, the fall of Richmond and surrender of Lee. 

The crowning figure is the President in the act of sign- 
ing the Proclamation. At his feet are Liberty and 
Justice ; while behind sits Time, watching the hour-glass, 
missioned, as it were, from Heaven. 

At the base of the steps leading from the centre 
structure are six equestrian statues of leading command- 
ers of the Army. 

It is to be regretted that the picture does 
not bring out more clearly the details of the 
"slavery groups" which are mentioned. The 
description of the third group (which does not 
show in the picture) indicates that Mills' con- 
ception of the "ransomed slave" did not differ 
materially from Ball's "kneeling slave." As 
an "Emancipation" group, however, it was a 
step higher than Ball's conception, in that 
Mills' group suggested that it was "Liberty" 
which had struck off the slave's chains and 
was triumphantly holding them aloft. Yet it 
may have been because he was reluctant to 
use Mr. Lincoln twice on the monument, that 
the sculptor showed "Liberty" as the instru- 
ment if not the cause of the Emancipation. At 
any rate the placing of the matter on an im- 
personal basis was a step higher. It is worth 
noting, also, that the bas-reliefs on the same 
"story" indicate that Mills did not regard 
"Emancipation" as completed with the issu- 
ance of the Proclamation. Two of these 

[42] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

reliefs show the Congress amending the Con- 
stitution — in order to complete and make 
secure the limited Emancipation which had 
been proclaimed. 

In conformity with the usual practice of the 
times, the memorial is over-elaborated. It is 
crowded, confused, and incoherent; and is 
also somewhat crude in its mixture of the 
realistic and the figurative. From an artistic 
point of view, incoherence is perhaps its most 
conspicuous fault. Consider the bas-reliefs 
on the three faces of the "first story." The 
firing on Fort Sumter would seem to have 
little or no relation to amending the Constitu- 
tion. The same criticism applies to the three 
groups of the second story : the Cabinet ; the 
Navy and prominent Union men; and the 
surrender of Lee — the Army being all on 
horseback around the base. 

So that, independent of its inadequate treat- 
ment of the Emancipation, and despite its 
worthiness in certain respects, we need not 
now greatly regret that this proposed memo- 
rial was not completed. 

SUMMARY — "EMANCIPATION" 
GROUPS AND FIGURES 

We have considered several statues and 
groups which were more or less related to 

[43] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

that important and far-reaching occurrence 
which we designate "The Emancipation." 

We have seen that Ward had this event in 
mind and perhaps intended to commemorate 
it when he modeled his "Freedman." Yet the 
form of this statuette as well as its accesso- 
ries, and also its name, indicate that his in- 
tention was to portray a Freed-man rather 
than to personify Free-dom — a class rather 
than a theme. 

The same line of interpretation would seem 
to apply to Edmonia Lewis' "Freedwoman," 
which was brought out after the War. How- 
ever, having before us no picture of this 
statue nor any adequate description of it, we 
are somewhat at a loss as to its full meaning 
and significance. 

Rogers' figure on the Detroit monument, 
which is called "Emancipation," can scarcely 
be regarded as an attempt to symbolize the 
Emancipation as an event; although it was 
probably intended to be a perpetual reminder 
of one of the War's most notable results. 

As for Ball's misnamed group ; I have tried 
to show, that, notwithstanding its past and 
present popularity under its adopted name, it 
has little right to claim any higher conception 
than the one originally in the sculptor's mind, 
that is, "Lincoln and a Kneeling Slave." 



[44] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Bissell's Edinburgh group is not primarily 
an "Emancipation" group, yet if it be so re- 
garded, it is a far more deserving representa- 
tion than Ball's ; not the least of its merits 
being its freedom from ostentation and from 
affectation. 

Scofield's relief on the Cleveland monument 
carries us several steps toward an adequate 
representation, but does not bring us as near 
as we could wish. He does, however, perceive 
that Mr. Lincoln, while performing a noble 
act in issuing the Proclamation, was as much 
an instrument as a cause. Moreover, Scofield 
recognized that there were reasons other than 
simple benevolence prompting the action, and 
that some of those reasons were quite practi- 
cal. In fact, Scofield's conception, as a whole, 
is a bit too practical, the ensemble too local- 
ized, and it is lacking in idealization. 

Several of the sculptural works that are yet 
to be considered under the general subject, 
bear more or less relation to the Emancipa- 
tion ; but in most cases the relation is inci- 
dental. To regard them as commemorative 
or symbolical of the Emancipation would tend 
to distract attention from their main intents 
and significations. 

It may be said further, that, of the works 
so far discussed, there are only two: Ball's 
and Scofield's — perhaps, strictly, only the 

[45] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

latter — which appear to be primarily rep- 
resentations of this great theme. Unfortu- 
nately, Scofield's panel is relatively small, is 
obscurely placed, and, as has been indicated, 
is artistically rather mediocre. 

In view of what has been set forth, it may 
be held, that, at the time this monograph was 
put into its first form, early in 1913, although 
fifty years had passed since "Emancipation" 
was proclaimed, no adequate representation 
of it as an event — including and indicating 
its genetical causation and an apparent under- 
standing and appreciation on the part of its 
principal beneficiaries — had yet appeared in 
sculpture, nor indeed in painting. Perhaps 
none, so inclusive, is possible. Perhaps it is 
one of those comprehensive yet intangible 
conceptions which, while readily compre- 
hended, is scarcely amenable to satisfactory 
representation or clear suggestion objectively. 

Curious it is, Kenyon Cox cites this very 
theme as an example of the difficulty if not 
impossibility of expressing by painting (or 
presumably by sculpture) certain conceptions 
which, without much difficulty, lend them- 
selves to verbal exposition or definition. * 

Reducing the conception to the simpler and 
more concrete idea of an occurrence — Lincoln 
Emancipating the Slaves — we are still in 

* "The Classic Point of View," page 66 

[46] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

serious difficulty; for "emancipating" cannot 
be pictured * 

And Mr. Cox shows, that if we drop still 
lower, to a mere incident, let us say, the 
writing, or the signing, of the Proclamation, a 
picture of the scene will need an explanatory 
or descriptive label to indicate the "story," 
that is, who is writing, and what is being 
written; that much at the least. Our label, 
or name, should say no less than: "Lincoln 
Writing (or Signing) the Emancipation Proc- 
lamation." 

We might, indeed, shorten our descriptive 
name by resorting to such palpable and crude 
methods as have been followed by artists like 
Hogarth, who probably would have shown 
the document hanging conspicuously over 
the front of the table on which it was being 
written, or signed, and on the exposed part 
put in large print, proclamation. 

Given the historical knowledge that most 
Americans are supposed to possess, that might 
suffice for us to perceive what is transpir- 
ing in the picture even if the name it bore 
were simply, "Lincoln." And, since the per- 
sonal features of Mr. Lincoln are so familiar 
to us, the picture, so far as it goes, might be 

* The word "pictured" is here used in its strict and lit- 
eral sense. It is not intended to include representation 
in a broad sense, nor suggestion. 

[47] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

intelligible to us with no name at all. 

For the rest, — the acts and incidents con- 
nected with the event ; its purposes and results 
— we might draw on memory and under- 
standing. We could, of course, do that with- 
out the help of any picture whatever. But 
Art is intended to initiate thought; then to 
assist, to stimulate, and to excite, the memo- 
ry, the imagination, and the emotions. And 
the "art" of it is to do these things with taste, 
skill, and subtlety. By all means, "baldness" 
must be avoided. Nevertheless, if art, that 
is, the higher art, is to fulfil its mission, it 
must do at least the things enumerated. 

Take a simple representation of the scene 
we have been discussing ; put into it several 
people, scatter about a few accessories, and 
then call it "Emancipation," depending upon 
the viewer's unassisted, unstimulated memory 
and intuition to supply what is neither por- 
trayed nor suggested : that would not be Art. 

If great and comprehensive themes, and im- 
portant and far-reaching events could be thus 
easily disposed of, we should not require a 
Michael Angelo to depict "The Creation," nor 
a Raphael to paint "The Disputa." And such 
a representation as Holman Hunt gave us in 
"The Triumph of the Innocents," would be a 
waste of time and effort to plan and execute ; 
and it would be a still greater waste of time 

[48] 




9. Emancipation, group, Edinburgh, Scotland, by George 

E. Bissell 




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11. Proposed Lincoln Memorial, designed by Clark Mills 




12. Emancipation, group (front view), by Meta Vaux 

Warrick Fuller 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

and thought to ponder over it and endeavor 
to comprehend it, in all its wondrous wealth 
of suggestive imagery and mystic beauty * 

Now, Emancipation was an event of great 
and far-reaching importance, and the mere 
signing of the Proclamation might well be 
regarded as a sublime occasion; and the ques- 
tion may arise, can we by pictorial means por- 
tray the signing, and also in the same picture 
indicate or even suggest its importance and 
sublimity? Mr. Cox seems to think it cannot 
be done. I am not at all sure it cannot ; but 
am convinced that it would require a series 
of pictures and considerable skill in their de- 
signing, to suggest these ideas to a person un- 
acquainted with the history of the event, its 
causes and results. But supposing and rely- 
ing upon this knowledge, and upon a sincere 
and sympathetic appreciation on the part of 
those to whom he would appeal, I should not 
like to set bounds to what the artist might be 
able to indicate or to suggest. t Without such 

* A reproduction of this picture, with explanation and 
discussion, may be found in, "The Christ Child in Art," 
hy Dr. Henry VanDyke (Harpers, N, Y.). Dr. VanDyke 
holds that it is the "most important religious picture of 
the (19th) century." 

tit is not the province of Art — or at most, a small 
part of its province — to supply information ; except, 
perhaps, in the form of illustration, if we regard that 
as art. On the contrary, the understanding and appreci- 
ation of art depends largely upon previously acquired 

[49] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

knowledge and sympathy, the artist's efforts 
would be hopeless. 

That recalls the story of the English tourist 
who was being conducted about Boston by a 
guide. They at last climbed the hill to the 
Bunker Hill monument and when they ar- 
rived at the base of it, the guide with a swing- 
ing motion of his hand toward the base of the 
monument, said, "Here is where Warren fell." 
"Ah! did he?" said the tourist, and added, 
"Did it 'urt 'im ?" "Kurt him ? Why man, he 
was killed ! " exclaimed the guide with the 
vehemence one would expect from a Boston- 
reared man. Whereupon the Englishman, ad- 
justing his monocle and looking straight up 
to the top of the shaft, remarked, "Indeed, I 
don't wonder — falling from such an 'ite." 

All that has been said concerning painting, 
especially as to its limitations, is equally true 
— more obviously true — of sculpture. We 
may, however, ask the questions : Is it neces- 
sary to a representation of the Emancipation 
as a theme or as an event that the writing or 
the signing of the Proclamation be shown? 
Do we need even to show the Proclamation? 
or for that matter, must we show Mr. Lincoln? 
Of course, something must be depicted. Shall 

and assimilated, knowledge ; and in the higher forms of 
art, to knowledge must he added what we commonly 
designate as culture. 

[50] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

we stop at mere objective and realistic por- 
trayal, or shall we not endeavor to indicate 
and to suggest more than we actually portray? 
And finally; are not the possibilities of rep- 
resentation and suggestion widened as we 
draw away from realistic portrayal ? 

To portray limitedly and yet to suggest 
broadly, may be called the method of the 
higher art; and all of the representations 
which we have discussed — whatever their 
imperfections and whatever their merits — 
have exemplified this method more or less. 

It would be going too far to purport to lay 
down rules to be followed in the representa- 
tion of the theme under discussion or any 
other. Nevertheless it may be stated that a 
study of what has been done by artists in 
similar cases, leads to the opinion that in this 
case the most promising means for an ade- 
quate rendition appears to be the use of the 
figurative. 

And it may be held further, that, if we, as in 
this case, purpose to represent or symbolize 
a comprehensive theme — rather than to por- 
tray a simple occurrence or to indicate the 
accomplishments and the character of one or 
more individuals — we should keep out of the 
representation that which is essentially per- 
sonal. At any rate, the figurative and the im- 
personal should predominate. 

[51] 



EMANCIPATION AND TEE FREED 

In order to make clear what I have in mind, 
let us consider rwo works of the late Augustus 
Saint Gaudens: the Sherman statue in New 
York, and the "Shaw Memorial" in Boston. 

In the Sherman statue, or group, we have 
one of the most admirable examples that art 
has produced of the successful combination 
of the realistic with the figurative. 

General Sherman is mounted on his horse 
which is striding forward. Just before the 
horse, half runs, half flies, a winged figure 
with extended right arm and bearing in her 
left hand a palm branch ; clearly personifying 
"Victory." 

Regarded as a statue of General Sherman, 
this combination of mounted warrior and alle- 
gorical figure is a striking success, since it 
shews what appears to be a good personal 
likeness and also strongly suggests General 
Sherman's character and recalls his accom- 
plishments. 

But let us turn the matter around and try 
to think of this group as having been intended 
to represent or to symbolize some idea or 
some historical event more or less related to 
the allegorical figure. Let us call the group 
"Victory," or "The Victory of the Union," or 
"The Civil War." In any of these cases, the 
personality, the well-known and the recog- 
nized personality, of the man in the group 

[52] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

will disturb and disconcert us. It will be diffi- 
cult to disregard his personal presence, and it 
will be still more difficult to merge his per- 
sonality — and lose his identity — in whichever 
conception we are endeavoring to form. 

Moreover, if we should attempt to represent 
one of the conceptions which, in character, 
approach historical events, say, "The Vic- 
tory of the Union," it would not make Gen- 
eral Sherman's personal presence in the rep- 
resentation any more tolerable if the victory 
had been due, even mere than it was, to his 
personal efforts. On the contrary, the more 
conspicuous had been the part he had played 
in the event, the more insistently would his 
personality seem to stand out. 

In short, this group, regardless of the name 
that may be attached to it, is "Sherman"; 
"Victorious Sherman," if you please, but es- 
sentially, even insistently, "Sherman." 

If on the other hand the man on the horse 
were merely "a" general or "a" soldier, the as- 
pect of the matter would change completely. 
We could then readily think of the group as 
representing any of the conceptions named or 
perhaps ethers equally as intangible. 

The "Shaw Memorial," although it shows 
Colonel Shaw's personal figure, and although 
primarily intended to be that which its name 
implies, is nevertheless frequently referred to 






EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

as representing certain comprehensive events 
and intangible conceptions far beyond, or but 
remotely connected with, Colonel Shaw's indi- 
viduality. 

In this panel the sculptor has placed a per- 
sonal figure it is true ; but by grouping with 
this personal figure a seemingly overwhelm- 
ing number of other essentially im-personal 
figures, all in rhythmic action, and also by in- 
troducing conspicuously and skilfully an un- 
defined, floating, angelic figure, Saint Gaudens 
has produced a most unique ensemble. We 
may readily concentrate our attention on the 
mounted officer or we may subordinate him 
personally, if we choose. In fact, as we look 
at this wonderful panel, we instinctively do 
both of these things, first one, then the other. 

But nevertheless, the monument is funda- 
mentally what the sculptor intended, that is, 
a memorial to Colonel Shaw, or, to Colonel 
Shaw and his regiment. If we see more than 
that ; if we see "looming behind, the tremen- 
dous issues cf the war" ; if we see a frank, 
generous, and altogether acceptable recogni- 
tion of the patriotism and valor of the Negro- 
American soldier; if, despite the personal 
character of the memorial, and the masterly 
characterization of the chief personage in it, 
ideas such as these are strongly suggested to 
us, it is because we have here a most rare 

[54] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

and exceptional accomplishment by an artist 
of towering talent. 

Yet I venture to say that the sculptor of 
this masterpiece would have been the last 
person to consent to change the name of this 
panel — richly suggestive as it is — to any- 
thing comprehending a theme. 

Hence if we may judge by what artists have 
so far accomplished, it would seem that we 
may hold that the successful introduction 
of the personal into a work of art which even 
in a secondary way is regarded as representa- 
tive of anything approaching a theme or an 
intangible conception, calls for exceptional 
talent and exceptional skill and perhaps an 
exceptional set of conditions. And it appears 
that with all of these conditions fulfilled, the 
personal part must be, as it were, dominated 
and overshadowed by the impersonal and the 
figurative. 

"EMANCIPATION," GROUP, 
BY META V. WARRICK FULLER 

We come now to consider a group, which 
if it does not fully embody the complete chain 
of thoughts which arise at mention of the 
theme we are discussing, still it is a long step 
— by far the longest yet taken — toward a 
satisfactory representation; and comes near- 
est to having in it justification for its name, 

[55] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

"Emancipation." I refer to the group by Mrs. 
Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, which was mod 
eled for, and exhibited at, the Emancipation 
Exposition held in New York City in October, 
1913. 

Aside from our interest in the art and the 
symbolism in this group, it carries an added 
interest in that it is the conception and the 
work of one of the race of the "Emancipated." 

She has elected to treat the matter allegoric- 
ally, which is well ; for, that method, in my 
opinion, offers the greatest promise of a satis- 
factory rendition. The principal difficulty in 
the case is, that no rendition can be regarded, 
now, as satisfactory which does not include 
the recognition of the historical settings as 
well as the results of the formal act of the 
President; and also include the suggestion 
that, while "The Emancipation" marked the 
end of certain conditions, the evils which 
grew out of those conditions were not eradi- 
cated. 

Mrs. Fuller, in a letter to me, has sketched 
some of the ideas which were in her mind 
when conceiving the group. I quote: 

The Negro has been emancipated from slavery but not 
from the curse of race hatred and prejudice. ... It was 
not Lincoln alone who wrote the Emancipation but the 
humane sice of the nation. . . . 

And again : 

[56] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

It was not a pure race but a mixed race, Negro pre- 
dominating. . . . An undeveloped race. . . . 

So the fundamental idea of the group has 
been set forth as, 

Humanity weeping over her suddenly freed children, 
who, beneath the gnarled fingers of Fate, step forth into 
the world, unafraid. 

Quoting the artist, herself, again : 

I represented the race by a male and a female figure 
standing under a tree the branches of which are the 
fingers of Fate grasping at them to draw them back into 
the fateful clutches of hatred, etc. 

Perhaps I may venture to quote a few 
words from a letter which I was permitted 
to see. It was from a lady — not of Mrs. 
Fuller's race — who teaches in a school in 
the South which is attended by children of 
the Emancipated. She says : 

No one can see them [the youth and maiden of the 
group] without feeling their dignity and modest}" — how 
can I express it? It is as the children here, dear boys 
and girls, just ready to go out into the world, knowing 
they are to have a hard time, yet not afraid. 

A writer in the Framingham (Mass.) Even- 
ing News, described the group thus : 

It represents a newly emancipated man and maiden 
standing in the shelter of a gnarled, decapitated tree 
that has the semblance of a human hand stretched above 
them. . . . Humanity is pushing thern out into the un- 
tried world and at the same time [this semblance of a 
hand] is preventing them from a full exercise of their 

[57] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

new found freedom. In the attitude of the two figures 
who start out empty-handed to try the new life, is strik- 
ingly expressed the state of mind which must be theirs ; 
eagerness, uncertainty, timidity, and courage ; trying to 
realize all that freedom means and hesitating before 
taking the plunge. 

The brief quotations which I have made 
from Mrs. Fuller's letter are not to be regard- 
ed as her studied and formal interpretation 
of her work ; they are merely a part of the 
running comment in a personal letter, which 
she probably had no idea would be put to the 
use I am making of it, perhaps ungraciously. 

I fear to spoil what has been quoted by 
comment of my own. Indeed, viewing the 
group in the light of what has been quoted, 
the full meaning is so nearly obvious that, 
though he who runs may not instantly read, 
surely he who conscientiously and sympathet- 
ically studies, may discern and appreciate. 

No doubt, this group, even when it shall be 
completed, will to some seem crude and un- 
pleasing. We Americans have been schooled 
and coached to admire, and to admire almost 
exclusively, smooth contours and "gracefully" 
rounded forms — dumpling bodies and rolling- 
pin limbs with no joints to speak of. All these 
may be regarded as "ideal," but they are also 
very unreal. However, artists, sculptors es- 
pecially, have, even in America, almost or 
quite grown strong enough and independent 

[58] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

enough to discard the so-called ideal and get 
back toward nature — nearer, indeed, than 
artists cared to go or dared to go at the high 
tide of the Renaissance, when Michael Angelo 
gave us his knotty-limbed and virile "David" 
and his rugged, mighty "Moses." 

In this group we may see limbs, bodies, and 
joints modeled after the manner of present- 
day works of that "school" of sculptors rep- 
resented in America chiefly by Barnard, the 
Borglums, and Konti, and in Europe by sev- 
eral noted sculptors, including that greatest 
of moderns, Rodin. In the works of these and 
of their school we find an effort at least 
to shape and model — so far as shaping and 
modeling are carried — as in Nature we find 
things, and not as we imagine they ought 
ideally to be. 

But the most important and characteristic 
qualities of the work of this school of sculp- 
tors spring from deep seriousness of purpose 
and virility in expression. To these qualities, 
which may be called affirmative, may be 
added certain other qualities, which we may, 
for our purpose, call negative. Chiefly, these 
latter are results of an indifference to "finish" 
and, under certain conditions, a tolerance if 
not an approval of seeming incompleteness. 

The qualities to which I have referred as 
negative are the ones most likely to be mis- 

[59] 



emancipation and the freed 

understood, and if understood, liable to lack 
appreciation. Concerning these qualities, it 
has seemed to me that in the works of these 
sculptors in which these qualities appear, 
"beauty/ 5 ihat is, conventional beauty, is but 
lightly regarded: the fundamental purpose 
being to set forth ideas or to express charac- 
ter, and to do so with the utmost directness 
and simplicity. Kence, in these cases, when 
the modeling has proceeded far enough to ac- 
complish the purpose intended, the sculptor 
feels free to stop. 
Brownell quotes Rodin as saying : 

One stops at some stage or other when he has put into 
his work all he sees, all he has sought for, all he cares to 
put, or ail he particularly vrants.* 

Artr! "V i o ' - ^ ! o -' "■* -ri i ~rf h — T" nnntpc RITn ' 

No notion is falser than that of finish unless it be that 
of elegance : by means of these two ideas people v/ould 
kill our art. . . . The public, perverted by academic 
prejudices, confounds art vrith neatness.^" 

The modem tendency toward the subordin- 
ation of what ma3~ he called minute modeling 
and high hnish to loftiness of purpose and 
depth of meaning - the subordination of tech- 
nique to conception — is, in my opinion, of so 
much importance, that I am inclined to press 
the matter just a little further. To that end, 
permit me to quote a passage from a recent 

* "Freneh Art."' pa^re 224 t "Reals." page 6C 

['SO] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

book by Kenyan Con. He says : 

The modern view was admirably expressed in a favor- 
ite saying of the late Augustus Saint Gaudens which has 
been frequently quoted. "You may do anything," he used 
to say, "it is the way you do it that counts." As he meant 
it, the saying is a true one, for he did not mean that if 
you do a thing cleverly enough, with great technical skill 
and command of materia], that alone will make it a great 
work of art. He included sincerity, nobility of temper, 
high purpose, a love of beaut;/ and a love of truth, among 
the elements of "the way you do it" ; and he would have 
placed mere virtuosity, however excellent a thing in 
itself, far below these qualities in his scale of values. He 
would have been among the first to admit that there is a 
sense in which the reverse of his proposition is equally 
true. If the thing done be noble it does not matter how 
it is done. If the picture or statue have dignity of con- 
ception and grandeur of mass and line, if it conveys to 
you a sense of imaginative grasp on the part of the 
artist, if it arouses emotion and elevates the mind, it may 
be ruggedly — almost clumsily — executed ; it may be 
entirely devoid of surface charm and technical dexterity 
and be none the less a work of highest art.* 

Mrs. Fuller's group as it stood at the Expo- 
sition was in plaster, it was about eight feet 
high, making the figures a little over life-size ; 
the youth being six feet and six inches high. 

It is perhaps due the sculptress to say, that, 
notwithstanding her leaning toward the school 
to which I have referred, she was not satisfied 
with the execution. It was, in fact, a "hurry- 
order, " hence the modeling was less complete 

* "The Classic Poinb of View," page 39 

[61] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

than she desired.* 

The group was to be cast in bronze by the 
Emancipation Commission, but Mrs. Fuller 
writes that she "could not hand down to pos- 
terity a piece done so hurriedly as a repre- 
sentative bit of work." She said that, for the 
general public, "time would be no excuse," 
hence she asked and received permission to 
work further on it as she had opportunity. 

Concededly, the symbolism and allegory in 
this group are not as palpable as in some of 
the picture stories in the "comics" of our Sun- 
day papers. There may be persons to whom 
the conception will not appeal even after it is 
interpreted to them. In fact, Mrs. Fuller her- 
self collided with one such person. He was 
one of the participants in the Pageant at the 
Exposition. Happening to overhear him "ex- 
plaining" the group to a crowd of persons, she 
says that she listened with gathering dismay 
mingled with some amusement until the ex- 
positor explained that the weeping female in 
the group was the young man's "wife," where- 
upon the sculptress was no longer able to re- 
strain herself. Nevertheless, despite her inter- 
posed explanation, — of her own group — the 
expositor insisted he could not see it her way. 

* She also says in her letter. "I am sorry that time did. not 
permit me to represent in some way the faith, poetry, and 
music which in the Xegro is so great." 

[62] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Yet, even if it is possible to do so, the sculp- 
tor should not yield to clamor for more direct 
and obvious statement, where reserve, sym- 
bolism, and idealization are more fitting. Re- 
ferring to a recent symbolic figure by the 
eminent sculptor, Daniel C. French, William 
Walton says : 

Simple apparently — though not really so; striving to 
convey more in a few words, as it were ; a single figure 
motionless instead of a group in action, It is difficult not 
to think this is the way the higher art proceeds ; that it 
is truly finer to develop the artist's message of longing, 
or hope, or sorrow, in the heart of the spectator than to 
spell it out, palpably and objectively, before his eyes in 
pigments or in stone. This would seem to be peculiarly 
the inspiration which should animate the sculptor. ... It 
is not a form of art for the dull of eye or the slow of 
comprehension, but it is so much the better ; there is no 
surer way to degrade art than to work downward to the 
level of the meanest comprehension * 

And Emerson admonishes the artist thus : 

Quit the hut, frequent the palace, 

Reck not what the people say ; 
For still, where'er the trees grow biggest, 

Huntsmen find the easiest way. 

Notwithstanding the symbolism and alle- 
gory in this group, there is a certain obvious- 
ness as to some of the features. Thus we 
note : that the figures representing the Eman- 
cipated are of a mixed race; that they are 
youths ; that one is a male and one a female ; 

* Scribner's Magazine, Nov., 1912 
[63] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

that both are scantily covered ; that both are 
empt3 r -harided and that one is almost oppress- 
ively conscious of his lack, yet both look for- 
ward and upward with faces illumined by 
faith; that one definitely advances, but the 
other seems to ask, as it were, "And must I 
— thus ? " We observe that ''Humanity 5 ' half 
pushes, half detains them, while she hides her 
face in grief or shame or both ; and so on. 

Still, we may well believe that to the "dull 
of eye and slow of comprehension" none of 
these features will appeal with much of mean- 
ing or power. Paraphrasing Walton — simple 
apparently, but not really so; three figures 
almost motionless, instead of a group in act- 
ion. We do not ask merely, what are they 
doing? we are impelled to seek the deeper 
meaning and purpose. And the more there 
develops of the artist's message of longing, 
of hope, of sorrow, introspectively, — "in the 
heart" — the finer does the group appear. 

Here we may fittingly repeat the exclama- 
tion of Louis Gonse : 

Alas! it is not the absence of faults which makes a 
masterpiece. It is flame ; it is life ; it is emotion ; it is 
sincerity ; it is the personal accent. 

With these three figures, in as many atti- 
tudes, and this twisted tree-trunk with its 
gnarled branches — ail freely modeled or, we 
may say, barely indicated — the sculptress 

[64] 




13. Emancipation, group (side view), by Meta Vaux 

Warrick Fuller 




Copyright by Detroit Photographic Company 
14. The Beecher Monument, Brooklyn, by J. Q. A. Ward 




15. Figure on the Beecher Monument, Brooklyn, 

by J. Q. A. Ward 




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IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

endeavors to set forth, not a mere episode, 
but the whole drama. With boldness, and 
the sureness born of a penetrating mind and 
a personal revelation, she sets out to reach 
our fundamental intelligences and our inward 
sympathies, leaning lightly, if at all, on the 
obtrusively obvious or on the purportedly 
adventitious. The portrayal is emptied of the 
usual accessories as well as of the frequent 
claptrap — no broken shackles, no obvious 
parchments, no discarded whips, no crouch- 
ing slave with uncertain face ; no, not even a 
kindly, benignant Liberator appears : in short, 
she essays to set forth and to represent, not a 
person, not a recipient — not the Emancipator 
nor one of the Emancipated — not even the 
Emancipation itself, as a mere formal act, but 
far higher, The Emancipation as an embracing 
theme. Has she succeeded ? Some will wag 
their heads and murmur ruefully : "There is 
yet more to be said." Perhaps it is so. It re- 
mains to be seen whether or not, in compre- 
hensiveness, in profundity, and in art-power, 
Mrs. Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller will, in the 
rendition of this far-reaching theme, yet sur- 
pass herself or any other will equal her. 

In what has been stated, I have tried to in- 
dicate some of the thoughts and the emotions 
which well within while one sincerely and 
sympathetically studies this group. But highly 

[65] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

idealized and symbolical works of this char- 
acter are beyond the range of explanation, in 
the ordinary sense, and there are no complete 
interpretations of them which can be set 
down explicitly by the pen or expressed by 
the tongue. We see ; we feel ; we are im- 
pressed ; we are edified : we are filled with 
enthusiasm ; our glad souls overflow, We ex- 
claim : "Here is Art at its highest, and there- 
fore, at its best." And Art's higher message, 
after all, is not for the pen nor for the tongue ; 
but for the sight, the sense, the soul. 

It is a truth which we can feel and see, 
But is as boundless as Eternity. — Lozvell. 

THE BEECHER MONUMENT, BROOKLYN, 
BY J. Q. A. WARD 

Up to this point we have considered chiefly 
statues and groups whose fundamental idea 
was more or less a representation or com- 
memoration of Emancipation. The more im- 
portant works of that character have been 
discussed. It now remains to consider the 
more important of the other productions of 
American sculptors showing Black Folk, in 
which the representation of Emancipation 
was subordinate to other purposes or from 
which the idea was absent altogether. 

Ignoring chronological order, we may now 
consider a figure by T. Q. A. Ward, whose 

[66] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

"Freedman" has already been discussed. The 
figure to be considered is of a young Negro 
woman which flanks one side of the pedestal 
of the Henry Ward Beecher Monument in 
Brooklyn, unveiled in 1891. She is in the act 
of laying a palm at the feet of this true 
Knight of Freedom ; while on the other side 
of the pedestal a little girl of Mr. Beecher's 
race, supported by a boy, places a wreath at 
the feet of this great man who was also a 
friend of, and a lover of, children. 

Mr. Taft, in his History of American Sculp- 
ture, uses this monument as the basis of a 
great and deserved tribute to Ward. After 
discussing Ward's "Indian Hunter" and other 
early works, Mr. Taft says : 

But greater far, than any of these early works are the 
subsequent triumphs of Mr. Ward's skill and incessant 
study. As already stated, these have been largely por- 
traits of contemporaries, a field in which Mr. Ward is 
one of the masters of the day. Perhaps the finest of his 
achievements in this field is the statue of Henry Ward 
Beecher which stands in front of the court house in 
Brooklyn. In it Mr. Ward has inadvertently told us 
much of himself. None but a big man could have 
grasped that character ; none but a strong nature could 
convey to others that impression of exuberant vitality 

and conscious power At either end Mr. Ward has 

introduced realistic figures which pay homage to the 
great man above ; a youthful negress who reverently lays 
a palm branch at his feet, and a small boy and girl who 
attempt to hang a garland of oak leaves. The use of 

[67] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

such adventitious figures is often in doubtful taste as 
their realism may easily be carried beyond the bounds of 
legitimate art, or even of legitimate sculpture ; but if they 
were always handled with the restraint shown here, one 
could not object. Though essentially unarchitectonic in 
conception, they have been developed with sculptural 
breadth and simplicity. The young negress in particular 
is most happily treated, both in the matter of drapery 
and as regards the lines of the figure and of the clinging 
arms. The little ones on the opposite side illustrate well 
a combination which, though seemingly accidental, has 
been in reality carefully and wisely planned. The natural- 
ness of pose and expression could scarcely be improved 
upon. They are close to gen re; yet they are so winning 
and so closely bound to the subject through the all-em- 
bracing sympathies of the man who was ever quick to 
respond to innocent childhood and to downtrodden help- 
lessness alike, that there is an unusual appropriateness 
in their presence here. Their interpretative value will 
grow as the memory of the great orator becomes remote. 

Mr. Taft continues through ten pages to 
enumerate and discuss Mr. Ward's many and 
varied works. Toward the end he says : 

Such is the record of our oldest practising sculptor. 
Such are a few of the many dignified works which it has 
been his privilege to contribute to the general mass of 
good sculpture in the United States. It is not to be won- 
dered at that the entire profession delight to do him 
honor. They respect in him the upright and generous 
man and artist. They made him president of the National 
Sculpture Society upon its incorporation in 1896, and 
probably will have no other while he lives * 

* This was written in 1903. Mr. Ward continued as the 
president of the society named, until his death in 1910. 

[68] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

In the figure of this young freedwoman, 
as in the case of his "Freedman," wrought 
thirty years before, Ward has given us frank- 
ly Negro features. He depicts her as one who 
has just emerged from bondage — a bondage, 
the blight and deprivation and shamelessness 
of which are manifest in her uncultivated, 
though honest, features and her coarse, scanty 
covering. But if this young freedwoman's 
face lacks the light of intelligence, it also fails 
to carry that insinuating assurance which 
negatives innocence. Clearly, we see — and 
I think the sculptor desired that we should 
see — by her expression, her attitude, her mea- 
ger raiment, and her physical form, that she 
has been spared the shame, even if she has 
missed obtaining the advantages, of being a 
"favorite"; she represents the great mass of 
her lately oppressed sisters who deserve our 
considerate pity even as they sometimes com- 
mand our rather grudging admiration. 

If we have not, as Mr. Taft suggests, grown 
callous, we shall not fail to be impressed by 
Ward's elevated sentiment here, and also by 
his excellent execution. What he has depicted 
in these subordinate figures, seems not to be 
the merely perfunctory posing of models ; we 
get the impression that this young woman 
and these children are not obeying someone's 
suggestions but are responding to impulses 

[69] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

of their own. And yet their appearances and 
actions partake sufficiently of the idealistic to 
relieve the group from the commonplaceness 
which often results from the striving for de- 
tailed realism or from the piecing out with 
accessories.* As for the freedwoman, her at- 
titude and expression bespeak a saddened hu- 
mility, yet appreciative gratitude ; hut there is 
no suggestion of abjectness nor appearance of 
bewilderment. 

Caffin, in his book already mentioned, com- 
ments briefly on this monument. He says : 

The pedestal of the "Beecher" is embellished with fig- 
ures. On one side a woman and on the other a little girl 
depositing a wreath, and a boy steadjnng the latter figure. 
They are well-modeled in natural and graceful move- 
ment, but they impart a touch of sentimentality, so alien 
to Ward's habit, and indeed, to the spirit of the statue, 
that I wonder whether they were not a concession to the 
wish of the subscribers. 

Caffin's statement carries what seems to be 
an unjustifiable inference. Indeed, he seems 
bent on denying to Ward any sentiment, or 
any "sentimentality," at any rate. It will be 
recalled that he said of Ward's "Freedman," 
that in it there was "no intrusion of the sculp- 
tor's feelings." Nevertheless, Jarves had said 

*It is at this point that so many artists "go to pieces" and 
others become oppressive. The difference between the 
artistic and the commonplace often lies in what Mr. Taft 
calls restraint. Imagine, for example, in this case, this 
freedwoman conventionally "made up" with any or all of 

[70] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

he had "seen nothing in our sculpture more 
soul-lifting or comprehensively eloquent." An- 
other writer calls the "Freedman" a "mighty 
expression," due to Ward's "courage and 
genius." And finally, let us recall Mr. Taft's 
statement : "Little can we of a younger gen- 
eration appreciate the emotion which was 
wrought into this souvenir of the Great Re- 
bellion." i am afraid that, regarding one mat- 
ter at least, Mr. Caffin, — in common with 
many of his present-day contemporaries — un- 
consciously perhaps, has grown just a little 
callous. 

But whether Ward's work here partakes of 
sentimentality or not, I am glad to quote with 
hearty approval, a few more words from Mr. 
Taft's tribute to this "upright and generous 
man and artist." 

Mr. Ward is so much of a sculptor that he cannot do 
bad work — just as he is so much of a man that he can- 
not conceive trifling and unworthy things. 

"MORTAR PRACTICE," GROUP, CLEVELAND, 
BY LEVI T. SCOFIELD 

While considering representations of the 
Emancipation, reference was made to the 

the folio yrii g : big ear-rings; a heavy necklace of dog's 
teeth ; a conspicuously knotted head-handkerchief ; a liber- 
ally patched frock, slouchily worn ; a tied-in-a-bandanna 
bundle, on a stick ; maybe broken chains fast to her ankles ; 
and other supposedly suggestive concomitants. 

[71] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

"Mortar Practice" group on the Cleveland 
military monument by Levi T. Scofield. 

So far as I am aware, there are but three 
War monuments or memorials in this country 
which, among their many figures and groups, 
show a Black Defender. This monument is 
one, and the earliest one (1894), of the three. 

We may regret that Scofield lacked the 
technical skill and power of the great sculp- 
tors who executed the other two.* But we 
may congratulate ourselves that Scofield was 
not a whit less sincere and high-purposed. 

Our picture was taken from a viewpoint not 
best adapted to bring out the Negro artillerist 
individually. Yet it is plain that in the group 
he is conspicuously placed and strikingly 
posed. While the others in the group seem 
for the moment absorbed in their particular 
duties, and are indifferent to danger, our gi- 
gantic Black, disengaged at the moment, ap- 
pears to hold whatever of present danger 
there is, in almost expressed contempt. 

Whether indifference to danger or contempt 
of it is an actual military asset, is nowa- 
days being seriously questioned. But such 
has long been held up as the ideal. Hence 

* Saint Gaudens, Shaw Memorial, Boston. (1897) : Mac- 
Monnies. Naval group, Brooklyn, (1900). We also may 
recall Randolph Rogers' "Emancipation" on the military 
monument in Detroit, and may look forward to the con- 
sideration of a related group on Bissell's military monu- 
ment at Wateroury. Conn. 

[72] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Scofield's portrayal was intended to be — and 
it actually is — highly complimentary to Black 
Folk; and the courage displayed by the artist 
in executing this group was of a character at 
least as praiseworthy and as effective for ulti- 
mate good as the courage which he ascribed 
to this stalwart black man. 

Sculptor Scofield had served as Captain 
Scofield* through the Civil War. Doubtless 
he had frequently seen Black men "in action" 
on land and on water. This nobly conceived 
group in enduring bronze is his testimony. 

There is here no squeamishness, no equivo- 



cation; on the other hand, no exaggeration, 
no covert caricature. As Tuckerman said of 
Ward's "Freedman," this powerful artillerist, 
wielding the great swab, is "all African," yet 
we view him without any wincing, for he is "a 
mighty expression of stalwart manhood" ; "a 
noble figure" ; doing a noble work — a man's 
work, in a manly way. We could ask no 
more and I trust that we shall never, without 
protest, accept anything less. 

"THE NAVY," GROUP, BROOKLYN, 
BY FREDERICK MACMONNIES 

So much of the general public as know 
nim by his rollicking "Bacchante" and his 
lissom "Diana," but is not acquainted with 

* XOZ Ohio Infantry 

[73] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

his noble "Nathan Hale," would scarcely ex- 
pect Frederick MacMonnies to rise to a great 
height when treating the heroic; nor would 
he be expected to rise to the height of placing 
a black man conspicuously in a group of 
heroes. But he did both of these things. 

MacMonnies'' black hero is one of the Naval 
group on the Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial 
at the entrance to Prospect Park in Brooklyn. 

It required a noble man to conceive and to 
execute such a representation as late as 1900, 
long after the Nation had grown cold, if not 
callous, toward its Black Defenders. Perhaps 
it was the short-lived fiare-up of fair feeling 
which followed La Guasima, Ei Caney, and 
San Juan Hill which made it acceptable. But 
however that may have been, there he is — our 
unmitigated-Negro sailor-boy — right at the 
front, pistol in hand and naked to the waist, 
poised on one knee, alert and tense : ready for 
instant action if an opportunity should offer. 
Yet, like his fellows, he is facing an expected 
and rapidly approaching death; for Mac- 
Monnies has conceived this group as gathered 
on the deck of a man-of-war, which, while 
not wholly free of the fray, is — and each of 
these men know it — hopelessly disabled and 
going to the bottom. Mr. Taft says : 

For it was the sculptor's thought to show these men 
standing on the deck of a sinking vessel quietly awaiting 

[74] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

their fate. Whether he has made this clear, or ever 
could by legitimate sculptural means, may well be ques- 
tioned ; but the spectator acquainted with his intention 
will find the group most dramatic in its reserve. It be- 
comes easy to persuade one's self that the vessel is 
sinking. 

Mr. MacMonnies' work on this group and 
on the corresponding Army group on the op- 
posite abutment of the arch — as well as on 
the memorial as a whole — is such a notable 
and exceptional triumph that it justifies and 
deserves further notice. 

Here I cannot resist the desire to put in a 
little comment and interpretation of my own, 
although I might quote two or three pages of 
most lucid and graphic comment which is in 
the book from which I have already quoted. 
So, recurring to the "dramatic reserve" of the 
Naval group, I ask that you note the entire 
absence of theatrical or obtrusive heroics. A 
little gesticulation or vehemence would be as 
admissible here as in the Army group, oppo- 
site, with its "agitated contour; bayonets brist- 
ling on every side." But with the same cour- 
age, that manifests itself in other phases of 
this superb work, MacMonnies has employed 
a different and far more difficult method. 
Quiet, almost subdued, yet with a certain 
grimness, withal, it contrasts strongly with 
the havoc and tragic tumult in the army 

[75] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

group. It also departs markedly from the 
impetuosity, as well as the carnage, which 
painters on canvas usually throw into the 
portrayal of a naval action. We have come 
to think this sort of action is characteristic 
of naval men — 

When Death careering on the gale, 
Sweeps darkly round the bellied sail ; 
And frightened waves rush wildly back, 
Before the broadside's reeling rack! 

But the sculptor has reminded us that naval 
men are capable also of calm and resigned 
heroism — that very highest of heroism which 
faces an adverse fate tranquilly, and an immi- 
nent doom without panic and without quailing. 

Note how they stand together, a well-knit 
mass, yet with no semblance of huddling ; nor 
is any one of them seeking a possibility of sav- 
ing himself, individually. There is no indica- 
tion of apprehension, much less of fright ; no, 
not even where one might not be surprised to 
find it depicted : in the facial expression or 
the attitude of the one Negro in the group. 

Calmly, but decisively, an officer in the 
group points to some important incident that 
is transpiring at a distance; while one man, 
making a trumpet of his hand, leans forward, 
earnestly calling a message or a farewell ; and 
surmounting all, a strong-limbed Bellona, 
— rather more haughty than fierce — while 

[76] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

guarding and restraining the undaunted and 
mighty Eagle, floats exultingly down, along 
with her heroic wards. 

Only a dull and unresponsive mind could 
even briefly contemplate this group — having 
in mind the artist's intention and meaning — 
without experiencing a thrilling exaltation 
that would test his verbal powers to express. 
Surely we have here the high-water mark of 
dramatic expression in American sculpture. 

As I studied this impressive group, and as, 
in the light of what I had read and now felt, I 
gradually came, as I supposed, to appreciate 
its meaning and its message, there was an im- 
pression that all had not been said. As I med- 
itated there came thoughts of the funda- 
mental oneness of high human purpose; the 
leveling uniformity of human sympathies; 
and of the forgetfulness of artificial barriers 
when a common danger threatens or disaster 
overwhelms. And it seemed to me, also, that 
I could see outlined, or at least suggested, an 
idea, which in the general grandeur of the 
memorial as a whole, may have escaped the 
observation of even so keen and sympathetic 
a critic as the one whose interpretation I have 
already mentioned. And why might not it be 
so ? Who would claim that an examination, 
by never so competent a critic, though it 
covered hours or days even, would necessarily 

[77] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

reveal all the thoughts, ideas, and emotions 
which, during the many months of contem- 
plation, design, and construction, may have 
surged through the mind and soul of so con- 
scientious and high-purposed, and so nobly 
endowed a man and artist as Frederick Mac- 
Monnies has shown himself to be ? 

And what did my seeking eyes believe that 
they saw ? Why, just this : that the broad- 
visioned and catholic mind which had admit- 
ted a Negro to an honorable place in this 
valorous group, had also included in it others 
of the principal racial and national extractions 
which unitedly compose this great nation and 
which make up the personnel of our splendid 
Navy. Perhaps it was imagination — halluci- 
nation, if you choose — but the more I exam- 
ined and contemplated, the more convinced I 
became. And as I mused, it occurred to me 
that here, as well as at the dedication of the 
Crispus Attucks Memorial in Boston, O'Reilly, 
the noble-hearted Irish- American patriot and 
poet, might have been moved to say — 

Indian and Negro, Saxon and Celt, Teuton and Latin 
and Gaui — 

Mere surface shadow and sunshine, while the sound- 
ing unifies all ; 

One love, one hope, one duty theirs : no matter the 
time or ken, 

There never was separate heart-beat in all the races 
of men ! 

[78] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

POWELL'S PICTURE, 
"THE BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE" 

Although we are not at this time consider- 
ing painting, it may be permissible to say 
that the portrayals which have been dis- 
cussed, especially those by Scofield and Mac- 
Monnies, gain in significance by contrasting 
them with the unwarrantable and unjust 
treatment of the Negro sailor by Powell in 
his well-known painting, "The Battle of Lake 
Erie." This picture hangs at the head of the 
main stairway in the Senate wing of the 
Capitol at Washington * It is the one work 
of art, painting or sculpture, Nationally 
owned, or at anyrate officially ordered by 
the National Government, which shows a 
Negro "defender." 

Powell pictures the one black man in the 
boat with Perry in an attitude of ignorant 
fright at the splash of a cannon ball which 
has struck the water near the boat, while all 
of his (white) companions are wholly uncon- 
cerned, or oblivious of. the danger, if indeed, 
danger there be — from that particular ball. 

One marvels that such an unjustifiable and 
inexcusable falsification should have been ap- 
proved and put in place where it is, in 1871, 
less than ten years after Fort Wagner, Port 

* This picture is a replica of one in the Ohio State House. 

[79] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

Hudson, Mobile Bay, and Fort Fisher; and 
while Charles Sumner and other friends of 
Truth and Justice, who were also men of cult- 
ure, were members of the Senate. Their eyes 
must have been strangely holden* 

"STALWART" NEGROES IN ART 

While discussing the Negro artillerist in 
Scofield's "Mortar Practice" group, and the 
sailor with the pistol in MacMonnies' Naval 
group, allusion was made to the fact that both 
of them are shown naked to the waist, as I 
have been told by veterans of both the naval 
and military services was usual with Negroes 
whenever possible while "in action." And this 
is notable and characteristic, because seldom 
do any of their white comrades get so "warm" 
that they deliberately discard all the uniform 
"above the Equator." Equally characteristic 
is the related fact that artists, sculptors as 
well as painters, almost invariably depict their 
"men of color" as superior men, physically. 

I recall seeing, many years ago, a picture 
by an English artist which showed several 
Negroes on Lord Nelson's ship "Victory" in 
the great battle of Trafalgar. Two or three 
were prone, dead and dying, on the bloody 

* One of the sculptured reliefs at the base of the famous 
Nelson Column in Trafalgar Square, London, shows a big 
Negro "doing his bit" with the rest. 

[80] 




17. The Navy, group, on Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial 
Arch, Brooklyn, by Frederick MacMonnies 







i 




f-4 






PL. 




Copyright by Elihu Vedder 

18, Jane Jackson, painted from life by Elihu Vedder 




From a Cotlej Print, copyright, 1Q01-, by Curtis & Cameron 



Copyright by Elihu Vedder 

19. The Cumaean Sibyl, bronze bust, by Elihu Vedder 




) 

■ __ Jt ' 

I #^T 



■ ■:■ :*l**^ r ; 




$0t« | 



V v .,, 



I 




I . 



t 




20. Africa, figure, on door-frame at the National Capitol 

by Randolph Rogers 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

deck among their white ship-mates. The 
others were "hot" in the fight. And all of 
the Negroes — I distinctly remember— were 
stripped to scant trousers only; and moreover, 
those black fellows, at anyrate those remain- 
ing in action, could properly be described as 
"mighty men of valor." 

In Overend's spirited painting of the battle 
of Mobile Bay — the often-reproduced picture 
which shows Admiral Farragut conspicuous 
in the fore-shrouds of the "Hartford"— a pow- 
erfully built Negro, handling an enormous 
cannon swab, occupies the central fore-ground 
of the picture. He is naked above the waist. 

We may rest assurred that the scantily at- 
tired Negroes in the sculptural groups which 
have been discussed are not inadvertent por- 
trayals, nor are these portrayals half-disguised 
belittlement as some persons might suppose : 
they are "true to form." 

Perhaps some indefinable instinct prompts 
the display of their stalwart bodies ; * perhaps 
it is a sort of "reversion" : but whatever the 
reason may be, it is a fact, as I have said, that 
Negroes "in action" are wont thus to do — 
especially when in strenuous action enveloped 
in death-laden battle-smoke. 



* It may be interesting to note that "stalwart" probably 
came from two old Saxon words which meant, (that which 
is) "worth stealiDg." 

[81] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

THE "CUM^EAN SIBYL," 
BY ELIHU VEDDER 

A statue by W. W. Story, which he called 
the "Libyan Sibyl," has been discussed. This 
statue had its "inspiration" in the story of 
Sojourner Truth. It is a curious coincidence 
that the original of another representation of 
a Sibyl — a painting by the eminent American 
artist, Elihu Vedder — was a Negro woman 
whom Mr. Vedder knew in New York City, 
while he was working there as an artist dur- 
ing the Civil War. The painting referred to 
is the celebrated "Cumaean Sibyl" which now 
is at Wellesley College in Massachusetts. It 
is one of the most notable of Mr. Vedder's 
works ; of his early works at least. 

Since the work just mentioned is a painting, 
this is not the occasion to go into details re- 
garding it. However, the same conception 
was modeled by the artist in the form of a 
bust with a much closer resemblance to the 
original woman, physically and otherwise. 
This was later cast into bronze, retaining the 
name, "The Cumaean Sibyl." 

The original of this picture and bust was 
one, Jane Jackson, who sold peanuts on the 
street to support herself while her only son 
was fighting in the Union Army. The story 
and a picture of Jane appear in Mr. Vedder's 

[82] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

book, "Digressions of V," published in 1910. 
He says (page 236) : 

At the time [War time, probably 1864] I had my studio 
in the old Gibson building on Broadway : I used to pass 
frequently near a corner, where an old Negro woman 
sold peanuts. Her meekly bowed head and a look of 
patient endurance and resignation touched my heart and 
we became friends. 

She had been a slave down South, and had at that time 
a son, a fine tali fellow, she said, fighting in the Union 
Army. I finally persuaded her to sit to me and I made 
a drawing of her head and also had her photograph 
taken. Having been elected associate of the National 
Academy, according to custom I had to send in a painting 
to add to the permanent collection, so I sent in this study 
of her head and called it simply by her name — which 
was Jane Jackson. Time went on and I found myself in 
a mood. As I always try to embody my moods in some 
picture, this mood found its resting place in the picture 
of "The Cumsean Sibyl." Thus this fly — or rather this 
bee from my bonnet — was finally preserved in amber 
varnish, and thus Jane Jackson became the Cumsean 
Sibyl. 

There is nothing in the history or legends 
of the Cumsean Sibyl to suggest an African 
origin or residence for her, as in the case of 
the Libyan Sibyl. The Cumsean was, however, 
the most noted of the Sibyls, and the most 
prominent incident concerning her is the 
story of the sale by her to the Roman King, 
Tarquin * of the celebrated Sibylline Books, 
containing the so-called oracles. The story 

* About 500 B.C. 

[83] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

briefly is that she visited Tarquin and offered 
to sell him nine books containing her oracles. 
He refused to purchase them. She went away 
but returned later and informed him that she 
had burned three of the books and offered to 
sell him the remaining six books, but she 
asked the same amount for the six that she 
had previously asked for the nine. He again 
refused to purchase. The Sibyl went away 
but returned the third time, telling the now 
astonished Tarquin that she had burned three 
more of the books but would sell the remain- 
ing three ; still she insisted on the same 
amount that she had originally asked for the 
nine. This time Tarquin yielded and pur- 
chased the three books. These books were 
deposited in the Roman archives and were 
consulted by specially trained men on all im- 
portant occasions. However, we cannot fol- 
low their history at this time. 

Following the quotation above, Mr. Vedder 
goes on : 

The story of the Sibyl is well known, having been 
translated from Latin into English, but the story of the 
embodied mood has not been translated. In plain English 
it meant : If you don't buy my pictures now while they 
are cheap, you will have to pay dearer for them later on. 
Thus far the prediction has turned out true several times. 

But, as has been stated, Mr. Vedder, who 
is a sculptor as well as a painter, modeled the 

[84] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

same subject into a bust which was cast in 
bronze. It is this bronze figure that most 
interests us here. 

Comparing the features of Jane Jackson 
with the features of this Sibyl in the bronze 
form, we observe that the Sibyl resembles 
Jane but there are rather different expres- 
sions on the two faces. The lips of the Sibyl 
are more compressed and the corners of her 
mouth drawn down, thus arching her upper 
lip and giving her an expression of cynicism 
not free from contemptuousness — in keeping 
with the mood of the artist. The "look of 
patient endurance and resignation," which 
the artist observed in Jane's face, has in the 
Sibyl given place to an expression of stern 
austerity mixed with a certain mystery and 
uncanniness. It would not be difficult to im- 
agine this Sibyl to be capable of penetrating, 
and even of foreseeing, men's plots and plans, 
their dreams and schemes; while her own 
inner realization of humanity's essentially de- 
pendent impotence, would be likely to arouse 
such thoughts as are indicated by her scarce- 
hidden sneer. 

Thus it seems that in this figure, Vedder 
embodied more of his own mood than of 
Jane's. Nevertheless, he has, in this bust, 
given us a Sibyl who looks her part — looks 
the particular part as well as the particular 

[85] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

character which are indicated by the inci- 
dents briefly related. 

It is notable, too, that in transforming Jane 
into the Sibyl, Vedder has considerably sharp- 
ened her nose and thinned her lips ; thinned 
them even more than the cynicism already 
noted would seem to require. In short, he 
has "toned" her features so much and given 
her such long, straight hair, that one would 
scarcely surmise on looking at her that her 
original was a Negro woman. Yet it should 
be remembered that it was not Jane as an in- 
dividual, nor Jane as a representative of any 
race, but her story, her character, and her 
"look" — happily fitting, to a certain degree, 
his mood — that he embodied in the Sibyl. 

It is not difficult to see the connection be- 
tween Mr. Vedder's cynical mood and the 
Cumaean Sibyl's legend as outlined above. 
But an interesting question is, what suggest- 
ed the embodiment of this particular woman 
and her "look of patient endurance and resig- 
nation" in the said Sibyl, when such "looks" 
were no doubt common enough in New York 
about that time? Since he has not told us 
— if he knows — those of us who care to do so 
may each make a guess for himself. My 
guess is based on the supposition that Jane 
sold newspapers as well as peanuts (and per- 
haps other things), hence it may have been 

[86] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Jane's occupation as a dispenser of modern 
"oracles" which prompted her selection * 

"AFRICA," STATUETTE, 

AT THE NATIONAL CAPITOL, 

BY RANDOLPH ROGERS 

On the frame of the celebrated bronze 
doors at the eastern entrance to the Rotunda 
of the United States Capitol at Washington, 
there are four figures, each about eighteen 
inches high, representing the continents — 
"Africa" is of course one. These doors and 
the frame are the work of Randolph Rogers, 
whose figure, "Emancipation," on the Detroit 
Military Monument, has been discussed. 

Rogers' little "Africa" at the entrance to 
the Rotunda of the Capitol merits special at- 
tention for several reasons, one of which is, 
it is, I believe, the earliest work of American 
sculpture which shows a person of African 
descent or lineage. 

In size, this figure is rather insignificant, or 
perhaps we should say, diminutive ; yet it is 
properly proportioned to the other figures on 
the door-frame. 

* In a letter from Mr. Vedder, dated in Rome and receiv- 
ed since the above was written, he says, regarding the com- 
bination of imagination and reality which suggested the 
portrayal: "I simply took Jane Jackson, that type of a soul 
patiently biding its time, and put into the picture [figure] 
the idea of the 'Cumaean Sibyl,' thus converting Nature 
into Art." 

[87] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

"Africa," as Rogers portrays her here, is, as 
to features, form, and dress, a sort of idealized 
composite of the various races and peoples on 
that continent. Her head, perhaps on account 
of the crest-like head-dress which she wears, 
is reminiscent of Story's "Libyan Sibyl," but 
her features are heavier — more character- 
istically African. This is a very conscientious 
and praiseworthy representation, especially 
for the time — about 1858. 

As I have stated, "Africa," as Rogers por- 
trays her, is a sort of composite, Negro pre- 
dominating. She is less "made up" than her 
continental sisters — or should I say distant 
cousins? — "Europe" and "America"; although 
Rogers did not over-do the matter of "make- 
up" in any of these figures. He exercised un- 
usual restraint and good taste, considering 
that elaboration was the fashion of the time. 
This tendency of the time is exemplified in 
Crawford's "Liberty" on the Dome, modeled 
four or five years earlier. She is fairly smoth- 
ered under a superfluity of costume, orna- 
ments, insigni, and "properties." But that 
was the day of such delineation. In that 
day we would recognize an "America" or a 
"China," a "Venus" or a "Juno," by her apparel 
and trappings, or her lack of them. As the 
manager of the rural "Living-Pictures" show 
would say: "Now, ladies and gentlemen, we 

[88] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

will have a representation of Daniel in the 
Lions' Den. You will know Daniel from the 
Lions, by the green cotton umbrella under 
his arm." 

But the present tendency is more and more 
to discard, or at least to subordinate, costume 
and paraphernalia — that which Kenyon Cox 
would call expository millinery. Our higher 
artists seek now to emphasize pose and ex- 
pression; that is, they endeavor to set forth 
or to suggest ideas and to delineate character. 
These are especially the aims in sculpture. 

But to return to "Miss Africa." I am saying 
"Miss," wittingly ; for it should be noted that 
Rogers has shown extraordinary graciousness 
and delicate taste by depicting "Africa" as an 
adolescent maiden, dignified, yet demure, and 
without apparent self-consciousness. We shall 
the more appreciate the magnanimity of the 
portrayal when we remember that at the time 
Rogers was modeling this figure, "Africans" 
in America were as a race almost universally 
despoiled or mistreated and as usual, by the 
despoilers at least, despised and contemned. 
It would have been natural for the sculptor 
of these figures to have depicted "Africa" 
quite differently from the manner in which 
it was done by Rogers. A lesser man could 
scarcely have failed — or refused — to model 
his "Africa" repulsive, or "heathenish" at the 

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EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

least ; or if an extra generous fellow, or if in 
a comical (?) mood, he might have given us a 
blank-faced, grinning "Topsy." If in doubt as 
to the acceptability of any of these, he safely 
could have followed an exaggerated "mammy" 
type — conspicuous breasts, preposterous hips, 
and other physical features and expression to 
correspond. Even at that, he would have been 
doing much better for the time than Powell 
did for his time (over ten years later and 
after the war) in his reprehensible picture of 
the battle of Lake Erie, which I have men- 
tioned. We were extremely fortunate in the 
choice of the sculptor for these bronze doors ; 
for this little "Africa" by Rogers and Powell's 
dodger in the boat are the only portrayals of 
Black Folk in the art of the National Capitol. 
Like Crawford did when modeling "Liberty" 
for the Dome, Rogers made a try at inventing 
a head-covering for "Africa." Those who 
have examined "Liberty's" head-dress at close 
range, and thus had opportunity to observe 
its fantastic arrangement of feathers, fox- 
paws, and stars, will, I think, agree with me 
that Rogers did at least as well as Crawford 
did.* (It has been explained that Crawford 
wanted to do the right thing but Jefferson. 

* "Liberty, '" or rather the plaster model from which she 
was cast, may be seen at close range standing on the floor 
in the old National Museum Building at "Washington. It is a 
fact which I have not seen mentioned, that the so-called 

[90] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Davis, who then had the "say," insisted on 
something "different" — and he got it.*) 

"Africa's" head-covering is not nearly so 
bizarre as "Liberty's," still it is somewhat ex- 
traordinary. It is a sort of hood made of the 
skin from an elephant's head, with the big 
ears pendant, the short tusks protruding, and 
the trunk turned upward and backward over 
the head. At a little distance, it recalls the 
familiar Egyptian hood and crest, and it even 
suggests their possible origin. At anyrate, 
Rogers' creation quite becomes "Africa's" 
style and helps to make her look "peart." 

In her left hand she holds a small round ob- 
ject about as large as a good- sized cocoanut, 
but it is probably not a cocoanut, it seems to 
be too spherical for that. If the object were 
in "Europe's" hand or "America's," I would 
think that it represented a globe. Maybe it 
does, but more probably it represents a fruit 
of some kind; for the position of her right 
hand and its fingers are such that she may be 
about to pinch the fruit, if it is a fruit, or to 
pick something from it, perhaps the stem or 
rind. 

"helmet" on her head is made from an animal skin which 
has two of the paws remaining on it. 

* Jefferson Davis was not in control when Rogers model- 
ed these doors; hence we find that Rogers' "America" on 
the door-frame has on her head the Liberty Cap, although 
"Liberty" herself (or "Freedom" if you choose to use the 

[91] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

She is too high on the door-frame to permit 
close examination while standing on the floor 
or on a chair. My photographer spliced the 
legs of his camera and stood on a stool while 
focusing (?), yet, as you will notice from the 
picture, the camera's eye was considerably 
below her. So I am as yet without a close 
view which would possibly enable me to de- 
termine what it is she holds in her left hand 
and what the position of her right hand in- 
dicates. But whatever is indicated, Rogers 
could not have put more grace and daintiness 
into her pose and the position of her hands 
and fingers, if he had been lovingly modeling 
his own daughter instead of this neglected, 
un-chaperoned Daughter of the Sun. 

"AFRICA," GROUP, NEW YORK CITY, 
BY DANIEL C. FRENCH 

In front of the United States Custom House 
in New York City, there stands a noble group 
by Daniel Chester French. It is a representa- 
tion of Africa as one of the four continents. 
There are also groups representing Europe, 
Asia, and America. 

My attention was called to the group by 

official name), on the Dome, was not permitted to wear one. 
An interesting question is, If Mr. Davis had been in control 
when the model of Rogers' doors and frame came up for 
approval, would he have "passed" the dainty, demure little 
African maid whom we have been discussing? 

[92] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Dr. Owen M. Waller of Brooklyn, who re- 
ferred to the main figure in it as "Ethiopia 
Asleep." 

It shows a female of heroic size, seated. 
Her eyes are closed and her head bowed for- 
ward as if asleep. Apparently she is not 
"dead" asleep, for her jaw does not droop nor 
are her muscles relaxed ; but dozing, napping, 
she sits, ready to rouse herself on slight 
alarm. Her fallen mantle exposes for our 
admiration — or admonition — a more than 
Amazonian form. Her mighty right arm 
rests upon the head of a sphinx, while her 
left arm lies athwart the forehead and face 
of a just-awaking lion at her side. 

At the side of the sphinx and almost at 
"Ethiopia's" back, sits a hooded figure with 
a far-away look in her eyes; yet seemingly 
revolving ponderous thoughts in her mind. 
What is personified by this strong- but grave- 
faced figure sitting beside the sphinx, I do not 
know ; but through all of her enveloping mys- 
tery, there is manifest a penetrating, uncanny 
power. She may be pondering, or she may 
be planning; she may be doing both. Possibly 
French's idea here is akin to, or parallel to, 
Mrs. Fuller's in her "Emancipation" group — 
"Humanity" brooding over the wrongs and 
indignities heaped upon "Africa,"— the defiled 
sister, the Dinah among the continents — and 

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EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

dreading the future when "Africa's" sons shall 
endeavor to avenge her shame, as Dinah's 
brothers avenged hers.* 

These groups b}^ French are works of ex- 
ceptional distinction. "Africa," in particular, 
is a noble and admirable conception, and it 
is additionally interesting in that it is — if I 
mistake not — the only piece of sculpture 
owned by the National Government which 
portrays a personage of African lineage, ex- 
cept the small figure which is on the frame of 
Rogers' bronze doors at the entrance to the 
Capitol at Washington. The small figure by 
Rogers has a significance similar to the main 
figure in the group we are now considering ; 
it is a personification of Africa. In other 
respects, however, than the matter of size, 
Rogers' figure presents an interesting con- 
trast to French's "Ethiopia." Rogers' little 
"Africa," as we have seen, is a sort of com- 
posite ; yet like "Emancipation" on his Detroit 
Monument, is frankly and typically African. 

On the other hand, in French's group (which 
was not put in place until 1906), "Ethiopia" 
has apparently been "favored" even more 
than was Story's figure, the "Libyan Sibyl." 
"Ethiopia" is scarcely noticeably African, that 
is, Negroid, in features ; and moreover she has 
long, straight hair which hangs in a smooth 

* Genesis xxxiv. 

[94] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

plait down over her bosom. 

With all deference, and without abating 
a jot of one's admiration for the group as a 
whole, one is moved to question such a rep- 
resentation of Africa. It is true that on that 
vast continent (three times the size of Europe) 
the inhabitants have a wide variety of phys- 
ical features. The Sudanese do not much re- 
semble the Zulus, and both of these peoples 
differ widely from the Egyptian Copts and the 
Berbers. We know also that South Africa 
has a considerable population of real Dutch 
and English. But heavy-featured and crispy- 
haired people largely predominate on the con- 
tinent ; so it seems hardly justifiable to repre- 
sent Africa by a long-haired, more or less 
sharp-featured personage such as we see here. 
And even Story's Sibyl, while African enough 
to represent a Libyan, as he purported, yet is 
scarcely typical of Africans as a whole, whom 
she was also held to represent. 

Thus it appears, that, broad-minded and 
catholic as these men (French and Story) un- 
doubtedly were, there remained a residue of 
perhaps pardonable, and perhaps unconscious, 
race pride which prompted them to believe 
that their figures would be more acceptable 
thus ; and possibly that "we" would feel com- 
plimented by this "toning." However mis- 
taken they may have been — if indeed they 

[95] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

were mistaken — they have meant well and 
have wrought conscientiously and nobly, and 
we thank them for doing so. They as easily 
could have demeaned or disrespected us, as 
lesser men would have done and often have 
done. 

Perhaps I should not dismiss this splendid 
group from consideration without quoting a 
little of what has been said of it in the art 
periodicals and elsewhere. 

In the "Craftsman" (April, 1906) we read : 

The immemorial age and also the awakening youth 
and strength of Africa are symbolized in the group which 
bears the name of the Dark Continent. The principal 
figure is that of a young woman, sumptuously moulded, 
and with features suggestive of an idealized type of the 
highest order of the African races of today, rather than 
the ancient Egyptian. This figure is represented as 
asleep, reclining against an Egyptian column and upon 
a rock of the desert. The right arm rests languidly upon 
the head of a lion, and seems to have been lifted by the 
raising of the lion's head in awakening. The lion lies 
upon a stone that appears to have formed the top of an 
Egyptian gateway, from its shape and the carvings upon 
it of the scarab, or sacred beetle — the Egyptian emblem 
of immortality — and of the globe. This suggestion of 
age and ruin is further emphasized by a completely 
draped figure, leaning upon an urn, at the back of the 
group. 

It will be observed, that, to this un-named 
writer, the hooded figure is suggestive of "age 
and ruin." Another un-named writer in the 

[96] 




21. Africa, group, in front of the Custom House, New- 
York City (front view), by Daniel C. French 




Copyright by the Century Company 

22. Africa, group, in front of the Custom House, New 
York City (side view), by Daniel C. French 





23. The Harriet Tubman Tablet, Auburn, N. Y. 




24. The Douglass Monument, Rochester, N. Y., by Sidney 

W. Edwards 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

"Independent" (May 17, 1906), refers to it as 
a "mysterious figure suggesting the future 
possibilities of Africa." 

In the "Century" (Jan. 1906), Charles DeKay 
discusses the groups at length. Of "Africa," 
He says : 

Africa is on the extreme right, near the Battery Park. 
As a dark and unexplored continent, the genius, whose 
lower limbs are covered with a robe, has her head bent 
in a somber dream. Eyes, mouth and hands hint of las- 
situde and discouragement. She rests one elbow on the 
head of a lion, with the hand clenched on her knee, 
knuckles downward, while the other arm rests loosely on 
the granite sphinx of Egypt. Behind her crouches, deeply 
enveloped in a mantle, a figure that expresses the mys- 
tery of the deserts and the unexplored recesses of Afri- 
ca's primeval forests. 

It is as if the sculptor, an early admirer and portraitist 
of the sage of Concord, had meant to suggest that Africa, 
not awake, but on the eve of change, still struggles with 
a troublous vision. Were bits of one of Emerson's finest 
poems floating through his mind ? 

The Sphinx is drowsy, 

Her wings are furled, 
Her ear is heavy, 

She broods on the world. 

Who'll tell me my secret 

The ages have kept ? 
I awaited the seer 

While they slumbered and slept. 

There is considerable more regarding these 
groups, and all of it shows discernment and 
good taste. But toward the end of the article, 

[97] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

DeKay goes into a defense of the sculptor a- 
gainst anticipated criticisms. He says : 

In the groups here shown the sculptor has held a mid- 
dle path between realism and extreme symbolism. One 
observer may object that the faces of Asia and her at- 
tendants are not types of East Indians ; another may not 
like even so much attention to Oriental figures and ac- 
cessories as the group shows. One critic may call for a 
Berber, Abyssinian or negro type or touch in features 
and form of Africa, while another resents such obvious 
symbols as sphinx and lion. The sculptor, however, has 
steered a course that suits him and will suit those whose 
appreciation is worth while. 

This paragraph is a curious mixture of un- 
warranted assumption and mistaken infer- 
ence. Why should he assume that people will 
object to the sculptor's purported failure to 
do wftat there was no call for him to do? 
WrTy shoujd we expect the sculptor or any 
one else to single out the "East Indians" as 
sole representatives of Asia ? or the Berbers 
as typical of Africa ? If the sculptor actually 
had done any of these things, it is conceivable 
that some sort of defense of his action might 
be made ; but it seems far-fetched to assume 
that anybody will criticise him for not taking 
such liberties. 

Mr. DeKay's defense against anticipated 
criticisms of the sculptor's "middle path" in 
the matters of accessories and symbolism, is 
more reasonable. There is some ground for 

[98] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

anticipating criticism, or perhaps an expres- 
sion of a different preference, as to these mat- 
ters ; though, personally, I think that his mid- 
dle course here was happily chosen ; and, in 
my opinion, the consistent yet discriminating 
manner in which Mr. French has pursued his 
chosen course, displays exceptional intelli- 
gence, skill, and taste. The minor exception 
which I have presumed to note, appears to me 
to be merely a brief "falling away" from the 
course, or, if you choose, a brief steering to 
one side to avoid a supposed "snag." 

The really unfortunate features of Mr. De- 
Kay's supererogatory defense are his acerbity 
and almost self-opinioned dogmatism. It is 
scarcely necessary that he should say that 
"the sculptor steered a course that suited 
him"; and it is going entirely too far, to say 
that the chosen course "will suit those whose 
appreciation is worth while." It is doubtful 
whether Mr. French needs or desires such de- 
fenses. But, be that as may, I, for one, give 
full assent to DeKay's last statement concern- 
ing these groups. He says : 

Certainly they are worthy of prolonged study. They 
are the strongest work of one of our greatest sculptors. 

At the risk of appearing to be ungracious, 
I am constrained at this point to press a fur- 
ther consideration of certain ideas that have 
been discussed under French's group and 

[99] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

have been adverted to under other figures. 

There is no denying that as things appear 
to go among colored people in America, any 
artist has a fairly good right to suppose that 
"we" do put some premium on approxima- 
tions to the physical features of Caucasians. 
Confessedly, the reasons behind this apparent 
preference are somewhat beyond my ken, but 
I do not believe they are solely what, super- 
ficially, they appear to be. And often where 
there is a superficial appearance of such pref- 
erence, intimate knowledge of all the facts 
fails to confirm its existence. In the few cases 
where there is little or no doubt of its exist- 
ence, it is generally traceable to triviality of 
character or to a supposed expediency ; but 
we know that expediency is not based on 
preference. In any case, high and serious art 
should refuse it recognition ; for it is neither 
worthy nor representative. It has no higher 
claim to recognition than have excessive pru- 
dery, religious bigotry, racial or class arro- 
gance, or any other of the preferences, preju- 
dices, and pretexts, born of shallowness, cant, 
and pretense. 

At the same time, it should be borne in mind 
that, though we may concede wide licenses, 
what is fundamentally needed in Art is not so 
much rigid literalness, as high purposed seri- 
ousness; not stupid indifference, but sympa- 

[100] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

thetic sincerity; not narrow exactness, but 
broad truth: remembering also, and always, 
that it demands more and higher courage — 
and courage guided by intelligence — to show 
true culture, than to follow convention ; to be 
ungrudgingly just, than to be merely chari- 
table. And, for those who are in real need, it 
requires even a higher courage, and at least 
as much intelligence, to rise above expediency 
and insist on justice, when there is being ten- 
dered benevolence backed by good intentions. 
Let us, nevertheless, without fear, say to 
the artists — and to ourselves as well — what 
Mrs. Browning said to the poet — 

Truth is fair : should we forego it ? 
Can we sigh right for a wrong ? 
God Himself is the best Poet, 
And the Real is His song. 
Sing His truth out fair and full, 
And secure His beautiful. 
Let Pan be dead.* 

Truth is large. Our aspiration 
Scarce embraces half we be. 
Shame ! to stand in His creation 
And doubt Truth's sufficiency ! — 
To think God's song unexcelling 
The poor tales of our own telling — 
When Pan is dead. 

* "Pan" may be here regarded as representative of the 
old system with its numberless gods and demi-gods, each 
and all circumscribed by admittedly limited knowledge, 
power, and probity. 

[101] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

What is true and just and honest, 
What is lovely, what is pure — 
All of praise that hath admonished, — 
All of virtue, shall endure, — 
These are themes for poet's uses, 
Stirring nobler than the Muses — 
Ere Pan was dead. 

O brave poets keep back nothing, 
Nor mix falsehood with the whole ! 
Look up Godward ! speak the truth in 
Worthy song from earnest soul ! 
Hold, in high poetic duty, 
Truest Truth the fairest beauty ! 
Pan, Pan is dead. 

THE HARRIET TUBMAN TABLET, 
AUBURN, NEW YORK 

A bronze tablet in memory of Mrs. Harriet 
Tubman (Davis) was unveiled in June, 1914, 
at Auburn, New York. 

The tablet has been placed conspicuously 
in the Cayuga County Court House. It was 
paid for chiefly by personal contributions, 
mostly from people in Auburn and vicinity. 

The woman in whose memory the tablet 
has been erected had a most eventful career. 
She was born in slavery in Maryland and es- 
caped by running away when a young woman. 
After she had secured her freedom, she took 
up the work of conducting runaway slaves to 
Canada, mainly by way of what came to be 

[102] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

called the Under Ground Railroad. For that 
purpose she made many trips into slave terri- 
tory, encountering grave dangers and endur- 
ing great privations. When the War made 
such work no longer necessary, she became a 
nurse and a spy, rendering valuable service 
to the Union cause. 

It is difficult to view the facial features of 
this heroine as depicted on this tablet without 
wincing at what must be called — putting it 
very mildly — the bald literalness of the por- 
trayal. In fact, literalness, if it really is that, 
has here been carried quite beyond the limits 
of good taste. 

This woman, whose life-history is like a ro- 
mance and a hero tale combined, lived, it is 
true, to a great age ; but it is probable that 
for relatively only a short period of her life, 
were her features as shriveled, mis-shapen, 
and pitifully distorted, as they are here de- 
picted — if indeed they ever were. If the art- 
ist intended to do something "striking," he 
failed; for what he actually did was merely 
stupid* 

The people of Auburn, where Mrs. Davis 
lived so long and where she died, probably 

* A picture of "Aunt Harriet," as she was affectionately 
called, evidently from a late photograph, appeared in the 
"Auburn Citizen" in connection with the account of the un- 
veiling ceremonies. The difference between this "likeness" 
and the one on the tablet is marked. 

[103] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

had no intention to ridicule her ; and it is also 
probable that, knowing her personal charac- 
ter so well, they can manage to tolerate — for 
the sake of supposed art and truth — the hag- 
gish physiognomy which we see on this tablet. 

But many of us who were outside of her 
personal acquaintance, although we would be 
pleased to see her work and her sacrifices 
properly commemorated, yet find it difficult 
to reconcile such raw realism — if it is indeed 
realism — with genuine, deep-seated respect. 

Art fails of its purpose, if purported realism 
be pushed to the point where it appears to be 
inconsiderate or verges on offense ; and in no 
case is it permissible, in the name of art, to do 
that which is manifestly unbecoming or which 
will tend to excite ridicule. 

The inscription on the tablet, while excel- 
lent in the main, yet in part reinforces one's 
objections to the facial portrayal. One sen- 
tence reads : "On my Underground Railroad 
I nebber run my train off de track and I neb- 
ber los' a passenger." 

We might as well be frank about it — such 
honors are too much like "puddings rolled to 
us in the dust." 

In view of what I have said while discuss- 
ing other works, especially French's group, 
there will of course be persons — some sin- 
cere, some shallow, and some merely hasty — 

[104] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

who will accuse me of inconsistency. They 
will, for instance, claim and believe that my 
apparent insistence on literalness in the case 
of "Ethiopia's" representation, should apply 
to the portrayal of Harriet Tubman. They 
should, however, notice that, while superfici- 
ally, fault, in one case, is found with an ap- 
parent falling short, and in another case with 
a pushing too far, of literalness or realism; 
yet in both cases the essential faults — if they 
are faults — are the probable reasons which 
actuated the artists, and additionally in one 
case, objection lies in the probable consequen- 
ces of the portrayal. One is a small error of 
omission, from mistaken purpose ; the other a 
large error of commission, from stupidity or 
misdirected zeal : but neither offsets nor justi- 
fies the other. 

I have insisted on frankness. Even so ; but 
frankness, or its imitation, may be abused. 
Even genuine frankness has its limitations. 
Jesus, when admonishing the Woman of Sa- 
maria, did not use the same sort or same de- 
gree of frankness that Paul used in denoun- 
cing the licentiousness of his day. Let us not 
deceive ourselves nor be deceived. Let us not 
be disconcerted by the accusation of inconsist- 
ency, which is sure to be made ; for, as Emer- 
son has said, "inconsistency is a bugbear of 
little minds." 

[105] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

Oh, the world is weak — 
The effluence of each is false to all ; 
And what we best conceive we fail to speak. 

— Mrs. Browning. 

THE DOUGLASS MONUMENT, 
ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 

Here and there throughout the country, in 
public buildings, colleges, churches, and cem- 
eteries, there are busts, medallions, tablets, 
and a few monuments, placed or erected in 
honor of, or in memory of, individual people 
of color. Few of these are sufficiently con- 
spicuous or "monumental" to justify extended 
description. The most important is the Fred- 
erick Douglass Monument in Rochester, New 
York. Mr. Douglass was a resident of that 
city for many years and it was there he pub- 
lished the "North Star." 

Shortly after the death of Mr. Douglass at 
Washington, D. C, in 1895, a movement was 
started by John W. Thompson, a prominent 
colored man of Rochester, to erect a monu- 
ment in that city as a memorial to Mr. Doug- 
lass. Mr. Thompson was assisted by other 
prominent citizens, white and colored. They 
secured an appropriation of $3,000 from the 
state legislature. The Republic of Hayti, to 
which country Mr. Douglass had been United 
States Minister, gave $1,000. The remainder 

[106] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

of the $10,000 which was expended, was raised 
mostly from private donations. From Mr. 
Thompson's excellent book, which gives the 
history of the undertaking, it appears that 
less than five hundred dollars was contribu- 
ted directly by colored people, of which one 
hundred dollars came from the New York 
Conference of the African Methodist Episco- 
pal Zion Church, of which denomination Mr. 
Douglass had been a member. 

The monument was unveiled in 1899. It 
was erected conspicuously in an open space 
near the railroad station. On account of cer- 
tain changes regarding the station and its ap- 
proaches, the position of the monument is 
now somewhat inconspicuous ; hence a move- 
ment is on foot to have it moved to one of the 
public parks, which will probably be done. 

The sculptor was Sidney W. Edwards. The 
bronze figure is eight feet high and stands 
on a pedestal of about the same height. The 
pedestal has on its sides extracts from ad- 
dresses of Mr. Douglass. His son, Maj. Chas. 
R. Douglass, posed for the figure. The pose 
is dignified and commanding. It is intended 
to portray the attitude of the distinguished 
orator as he stood before a large concourse 
of people in Cincinnati and made his first 
public address after the final ratification of 
the Fifteenth Amendment. We can well im- 

[107] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

agine that we hear him saying in a tone of 
sober triumph: "Fellow Citizens : I appear be- 
fore you tonight for the first time in the more 
elevated position of an American citizen." 

Those who knew Mr. Douglass well will ap- 
preciate the strength of this work. It is not 
merely a man with such and such physical 
features, it is markedly personal, and clearly 
represents a person of more than ordinary 
force and commanding presence. 

For the statue itself as a mere work of art,, 
perhaps we may not rightly claim marked dis- 
tinction; few "portrait statues" have or can 
have artistic distinction; and generally they 
need no interpretation. In connection with 
portrait statues, symbolism or even adventi- 
tious figures or accessories are seldom used 
with advantage. Indeed, if a person has been 
sufficiently eminent, a mere portrait figure, or 
possibly a bare column or rough stone, may 
be a satisfactory memorial. The matter was 
well covered by the epitaph which I think re- 
lated to the great Greek dramatist, Euripides. 
It ran something like this : "This monument 
doth not make thee famous, Euripides, but 
thou hath made this monument famous." 

In personal memorials, however, most of us 
desire a "likeness" ; and one which bears not 
only a physical resemblance but which shows 
"character." Here the artist has given us 

[108] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

both. Mr. Edwards has done his work with 
a sympathetic appreciation of his subject and, 
moreover, with taste and ability. 

THE "DEMOCRACY OF CHILDHOOD," 

GROUP, WATERBURY, CONN., 

BY GEORGE E. BISSELL 

A Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial at Water- 
bury, Connecticut, has a most notable and in- 
spiring group which comes within scope of 
our subject. 

This group and the monument of which it 
is a part, are the sculptural work of George 
K Bissell, whose Lincoln Memorial in Edin- 
burgh, has already been discussed. While this 
Waterbury group seemingly was not intended 
primarily as an "Emancipation" group, yet to 
commemorate that event, or at least its con- 
summation, was one of the purposes of the 
sculptor. 

The Waterbury Memorial as a whole is so 
exceptionally tasteful, yet so expressive; so 
un-ostentatious, yet so appealing ; that I wish 
the occasion would permit an attempt at an 
analysis and interpretation of it in ail of its 
parts. 

It was dedicated in 1884, nearly ten years 
earlier than the Edinburgh work. It is a mat- 
ter of no small moment that so small a city as 

[109] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

Waterbury should undertake and construct 
such an imposing and costly memorial to the 
nine hundred men which the city sent to the 
War. It shows a practical patriotism and art- 
sense that is truly remarkable. 

Concerning the particular group which in- 
terests us now, it may be said that nothing 
needs to be added to the description and but 
little, if anything, to the interpretation which 
was given of it at the dedication by the Rev- 
erend Joseph Anderson, D. D. He said of it : 

The central figure in the group is seated in a chair of 
state, the panelled back of which is occupied by a wreath 
of oak leaves and laurel ; and within this, in a medallion, 
is an eagle, from whose beak depends a tablet bearing 
the word "Emancipation," the key, of course, to the 
meaning of the group. 

The seated figure, whose face is full of motherly ten- 
derness, leans forward in an attitude of listening. Her 
clasped hands rest on a large book which stands on her 
knee ; her right foot is upon a cannon, beside which is a 
broken shackle. The fillet which binds her hair is orna- 
mented with a miniature shield, graven with stars and 
stripes, which marks her out as representing the American 
government. A well-dressed school-boy — his bundle of 
books beside him — stands at her knee ; and while she 
leans forward to listen to him she looks benignantly up- 
on a ragged little Negro sitting on a cotton-bale at her 
feet, who holds in one hand a hoe, and is trying with the 
other to force open the leaves of the book upon her knee. 
In the school-boy, making an earnest appeal in behalf of 
the young Negro, the North is represented (by one of its 
children — for children have no prejudices, and know no 

[110] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

color-line) as appealing to the Government to extend to 
the African race the educational and other advantages 
which white people, North and South, had long enjoyed. 
And the Negro, who represents an emancipated people, 
illustrates by his position and action the eager desire of 
his race to secure the education which they know to be 
necessary to success in a free republic. 

If indeed this Negro boy represents his race 
mentally — as he plainly does physically — it 
would be difficult to express, concerning the 
race, anything more complimentary and re- 
assuring. The black boy, though the hoe is 
still in his hand, attempts with the other 
hand to "force open the leaves of the book," 
in order that he can secure the treasures 
therein. I know of nothing in American art 
that is more frankly and generously com- 
plimentary to Black Folk. Only a deep dis- 
cernment, and a generous and noble heart 
would have conceived and proposed such a 
thing, even in Connecticut — the home state 
Prudence Crandall, but alas, the state which 
in Miss Crandall's day had not reached her 
stature* Only a generous and noble commu- 
nity, and above all an intelligent community, 
would have sanctioned such a representation. 

Another idea that is set forth by this group 
is beautiful and true — the freedom from 
prejudice, the fundamental democracy, of 

*See Notes 

[111] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

childhood. The Reverend Doctor Anderson 
brought it out in his description, but I think 
it may profitably be pressed a little further. 
As I have stated, the idea is not only beautiful 
but true; and we should never look at this 
group or a picture of it, nor even think of it, 
without remembering this, among the impor- 
tant lessons which it teaches. Those of us 
who were reared in an environment where 
the children of our own race were relatively 
few, will perhaps bear strongest witness to its 
truth. From experience, we also know the 
truth of that which the sculptor himself has 
explicitly affirmed, that "race prejudice is the 
result of training, to which only grown-ups 
are subject."* 

Hence, besides having other excellences 
this group is an everlasting reminder of the 
falsity of the recently enunciated claim — 
seemingly the "last ditch" of those who are 
fighting against the teaching and the spirit 
of the times — the claim that there is a natu- 
ral and instinctive aversion of one race for 
another. Hereafter, when a person seriously 
asserts this doctrine; when he seeks to but- 
tress his cultivated prejudice and calculated 
meanness by this claim, we need not argue 
with him, we may merely refer him to this 
group — or show him a picture of it — this 

♦From a letter to the author. 

[112] 




25. Military Monument, Waterbury, Conn., by George 

E. Bissell 





26. The Democracy of Childhood, group, on Military 
Monument, Waterbury, Conn., by Geo. E. Bissell 




27. The Attucks Monument, Boston, by Robert Kraus 




28. Bronze Panel on Attucks Monument, Boston, by 

Robert Kraus 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

eloquent testimony in bronze, this noble 
group of BisselFs, to which I have given 
the name, "The Democracy of Childhood." 

So far as I know, Mr. Bissell has given no 
name to this group nor sanctioned one for it ; 
nor has he designated what he regards as the 
main idea in it. It might be called "Negro 
Aspiration," or "The Glory of Emancipation," 
or perhaps some other more expressive name. 
I would like to call it by the latter of the two 
names just mentioned, although the phrase 
may sound somewhat grandiloquent ; for sure- 
ly, the greatest good, and therefore the great- 
est glory, of Emancipation was the fact that 
it made possible, and to some degree attain- 
able, for the Negro boy, what had been im- 
possible and forbidden before.* I refer to 
education. It was the possibilty of obtaining 
that, that was Emancipation's greatest boon. 

But perhaps the name which I have pre- 
sumed to give the group is more in keeping 
with what appears to be its dominant idea. 
Except for the purpose of identification, there 
is no serious need of a name. Call the group 
what you choose, or give it no name at all ; it 
matters not. The really important thing is to 
appreciate the significance of what Mr. Bissell 
has here represented and to realize that here 

* The relatively few colored children in the free states 
who had more or less access to schools, are excepted. 

[113] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

we have another instance of what Jarves re- 
fers to as, "High Art teaching noble truth." 

THE ATTUCKS MONUMENT, BOSTON, 
BY ROBERT KRAUS 

There stands in Boston a monument which 
commemorates an event of great importance, 
which, while not strictly within the limits of 
the subjects under discussion, is so closely re- 
lated to them that we may, I think, properly 
discuss it briefly. The monument referred to 
is the "Attucks Memorial," sometimes called 
the "Massacre Monument." 

The history of the event which this memo- 
rial commemorates is so familiar that it need 
not be repeated here. The monument itself 
is a most beautiful and tasteful piece of work ; 
and it is notable because its erection by the 
state of Massachusetts in 1888 was due chiefly 
to the efforts of colored persons who began 
and pushed the movement. 

The sculptor was Robert Kraus. One can 
hardly refrain from regretting that the sculp- 
tor elected, or was requested, to reproduce, in 
the relief at the base of the shaft, "the scene 
of the massacre as it was presented in an old 
plate published in London."* The scene as it 
is presented, is somewhat inexact historically 

* Rand and McNally's Guide to Boston, 

[114] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

and almost "impossible" sculpturally; yet it is 
frank and sincere. Crispus Attucks the Ne- 
gro, who was the first to fall, lies prone, plain- 
ly in view. His face is toward the front, as if 
to give opportunity to make manifest his 
race ; and it is plainly manifest. There are a 
number of pictorial representations of this 
event which are more spirited and dramatic 
but none more satisfactory from the stand- 
point of frankness and sincerity. 

The fittingly designed and beautifully mod- 
eled figure which stands in front of the gran- 
ite shaft, represents "Revolution breaking the 
chains." She holds aloft the broken chains in 
her right hand and supports a flag and staff 
with the other hand * 

On the granite shaft are the names of the 
men who were killed in the massacre; At- 
tacks' name standing first. 

On the occasion of the dedication, the late 
John Boyle O'Reilly, the Irish-American pa- 
triot, read a poem of his own composition. 
Nothing nobler has ever been penned by an 
American. This splendid poem is not nearly 
so widely known as it deserves to be. If some 
unfortunate castastrophe had completely de- 
stroyed the granite and bronze of the monu- 
ment on the day after its dedication, the fact 

* In the official booklet giving an account of the unveiling 
ceremonies, this figure is called "Free America." 

[115] 

j 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

that its erection had inspired this poem, 
would have made its erection amply worth 
while. A few stanzas are appended * 

Where shall we seek for a hero, and where shall we find 

a story? 
Our laurels are wreathed for conquest, our songs for 

completed glory : 
But we honor a shrine unfinished, a column uncapped 

with pride 
If we sing the deed that was sown like seed when Crispus 

Attucks died. 

Shall we take for a sign this Negro slave, with unfamiliar 

name — 
With his poor companions, nameless too, till their lives 

leaped forth in flame ? 
Yes, surely, the verdict is not for us to render or deny ; 
We can only interpret the symbol ; God chose these men 

to die — 
As teachers, perhaps, that to humble lives may chief 

award be made; 
That from lowly ones and rejected stones the temple's 

base is laid ! 

When the bullets leaped from the British guns, no chance 

decreed their aim ; 
Men see what the royal hirelings saw — a multitude and 

a flame : 
But beyond the flame a mystery : five dying men in the 

street, 
While streams of severed races in the well of a nation 

meet! 

♦Apart of one stanza has already been quoted in con- 
nection with MacMonnies' group. 

[116] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Oh, blood of the people ! changeless tide, through century, 

creed, and race! 
Still one as the sweet salt sea is one, though tempered by 

sun and place; 
The same in the ocean currents, and the same in the 

sheltered seas; 
Forever the fountain of common hopes and kindly 

sympathies. 

Indian and Negro, Saxon and Celt, Teuton and Latin and 

Gaul — 
Mere surface shadow and sunshine, while the sounding 

unifies all ! 
One love, one hope, one duty theirs ! No matter the time 

or ken, 
There never was separate heart-beat in all the races of 

men! 

And honor to Crispus Attucks, who was leader and voice 

that day, — 
The first to defy, and the first to die, with Maverick, Carr 

and Gray. 
Call it riot or revolution, his hand first clenched at the 

crown ; 
His feet were the first in perilous place to pull the king's 

flag down ; 
His breast was the first one rent apart that liberty's blood 

might flow ; 
For our freedom now and forever, his head was the first 

laid low.* 

FAITHFUL SLAVES MONUMENTS 

At various times for several years past, 
there have been propositions and discussions 

* A few additional stanzas may be found in the Notes. 

[117] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

in the newspapers and elsewhere looking to 
the erection, by the people of the South, of a 
Memorial to commemorate the faithfulness 
of the slaves who remained on the plantations 
and in the homes of their masters during the 
period of the Civil War.* 

Although the great memorial which the 
proponents have had in mind has not yet 
materialized, several lesser ones have been 
erected. Seemingly, many of these have been 
the tributes of individuals or families to one 
or a certain few ex-slaves ; but a few of these 
memorials are of broader scope. 

One of the most important of these — which 
appears to be the first one erected — is located 
at Fort Mill, South Carolina. It is the only 
one of which I have been able to obtain a 
complete description and picture. 

For the picture shown herein and for the 
description, I am indebted to Mr. C. S. Link, 
City Clerk of Fort Mill. He writes : 

The "Faithful Slaves" monument was erected in Con- 
federate Park here in 1895 by Captain Samuel Elliott 
White, and is thus the first monument erected through- 
out the country to commemorate the fidelity of the slaves 
who remained at home during the years of the War Be- 
tween the Sections and protected the lives and property 
left behind by those who went to the front. I make this 
statement since it is a fact that claim has been made by 

* It has also been proposed to erect a memorial to the 
Negro "mammies" of the South. 

[118] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

other towns in the South to the distinction of being the 
first to erect such a monument but in each case it has 
been found that the claims are not valid. 

The monument is a simple and dignified shaft of mar- 
ble on the west side of which is carved a negro "mammy" 
sitting upon the steps of the "big house" and holding a 
white baby in her arms ; on the east side is carved an old 
negro man resting upon a log in the edge of a field of 
grain with his blade resting beside him. 

On the south side is carved : 

1860 
Dedicated to the Faithful Slaves who, loyal 
to a sacred trust toiled for the support of 
the army with matchless devotion, and with 
sterling fidelity guarded our defenceless 
homes, women, and children during the 
struggle for the principles of the Confeder- 
ate States of America. 

1865 

On the north side appears: 

1895 
Erected by Samuel E. White in grateful 
memory of earlier days with approval of 
the Jefferson Davis Memorial Association. 
Among the many faithful : Nelson White 
(and six others) 

Whatever the merits or demerits of this 
monument as a work of art — as to which I 
am not in a position to judge — there is no 
gainsaying the praiseworthy motives which 
prompted its erection and the very laudatory 
character of the tribute inscribed on it. This 
tribute, it seems, was not intended to be re- 

[119] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

stricted to the persons whose names are cited 
but to the faithful slaves generally. 

Concerning the community which has sanc- 
tioned, and which takes pride in, such a me- 
morial, we may well believe — as Mr. Link 
states, and cites certain facts to prove — 

The spirit of good fellowship which existed in this 
community between the master and the slave in former 
days still exists to this day between the races. 

"PEACE," GROUP, INDIANAPOLIS, 
BY BRUNO SCHMITZ 

On the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in 
Indianapolis there is a relief group which 
shows a Negro. 

The group bears the name "Peace," comple- 
menting a group on the opposite face of the 
shaft named "War." The figures and the ac- 
cessories in both groups indicate that they re- 
late to the late Civil War in this country. 

The "designer" of these groups, as well as 
of the monument as a whole, was Bruno 
Schmitz of Germany. Previous to designing 
this monument he had designed several very 
fine monuments which had been erected in 
Germany. I have referred to Mr. Schmitz as 
the "designer" of these groups, because that 
is the way the matter is stated in the histor- 
ical accounts, wherein it is also stated that 

[120] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

the actual modeling was done by another 
person. 

Besides the two relief groups, designated 
"War" and "Peace," respectively, as stated, 
there are two other groups, bearing the same 
names, which are modeled wholly "in the 
round."* The latter groups are situated be- 
low the relief groups ; and, although they are 
a few feet from the base of the main shaft, 
against which the relief groups rest, they are 
so placed that at a little distance, viewed from 
the front, the lower groups and upper reliefs 
appear as one ; + thus making the relief groups 
appear considerably larger, although without 
this seeming augmentation they are described 
as the largest in the world. 

The main shaft is nearly three hundred 
feet high. At a little distance, it is very im- 
posing and beautiful, notwithstanding it is 
perhaps a little over-ornamented and is sur- 
rounded by a distracting superfluity of indi- 
vidual figures, portrait statues, candelabra, 
and what not. 

The monument was constructed in instal- 
ments extending over several years, being 
finally dedicated in 1902, thus being the latest 
of the larger War memorials that so far have 

*The fact is, the so-called relief groups show every gra- 
dation of modeling from very low relief to full round figures. 

t It is not likely that this result was foreseen. 

[121] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

been erected. The various ornaments, figures,, 
statues, etc., are the work of several different 
sculptors. 

The two relief groups — or perhaps we 
should say the four groups, two "War" and 
two "Peace" — are the chief sculptural fea- 
tures of the monument. Only the Peace 
group comes strictly within the scope of our 
subject ; but since the two sets of groups are 
so closely related, and moreover, since the 
chief fault — as I see it — of the Peace group 
is present also in the War group ; and since 
I think it will be easier to demonstrate its 
presence in the War group, by comparing 
that group with well-known groups of similar 
import ; I shall take the liberty to discuss both 
groups, or sets of groups, briefly. The fault 
which I am about to impute to these groups 
is chiefly an artistic fault — if fault at all — 
yet it has bearing on the presence and the in- 
terpretation of the figure in which we are 
mainly interested. 

The two groups which I shall use for com- 
parison with the War group here, are Rude's 
celebrated group on the Arc de Triomphe 
in Paris, and MacMonnies' Army group on 
the Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial Arch in 
Brooklyn. These two latter groups some- 
what resemble each other ; and the War group 
here, resembles both, but in the manner of its 

[122] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

treatment, and in conception especially, it is 
markedly different from them. 

Broadly speaking, Rude's group represents 
the powerful and universal appeal of a war 
based on national patriotism. His Bellona 
suggests consuming earnestness — flaming 
fury, we may say — yet not hate nor blood- 
thirstiness. The voice from her open mouth 
may be hoarse and strident, but her call is : 
"On to Glory! " and not only warriors, veter- 
ans and recruits, but all ages, classes, and 
conditions are surging forward in a fervor of 
enthusiasm in response to her summons. We 
may hardly call it war ; this is only the open- 
ing phase of war, hence the name, Le Depart 
— the Departure for War. 

In MacMonnies' group, "The Army," he has 
represented a body of infantry projected, as it 
were, right into the midst of a desperate situ- 
ation — "exploded" there, the sculptor con- 
ceived it. Only two or three as yet have fal- 
len and the detachment has scarcely gotten 
into action, though "bayonets bristle on every 
side." Bellona, seemingly unmindful of the 
critical situation of her wards, comes career- 
ing forward on her winged steed, and pres- 
sing the trumpet to her half-scornful lips, she 
blows a far-sounding Defiance. 

Both of these groups, it will be noted, repre- 
sent conceptions not much more comprehen- 

[123] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

sive than incidents or, at most, "occasions" in 
war. On the other hand, the Indianapolis 
group is a very ambitious undertaking. It at- 
tempts more than any but the very highest 
genius could hope to accomplish successfully. 
The group (viewing the two as one) essays to 
represent so much of the tumult and carnage 
as well as the glory of war, on a large scale ; 
and brings into action so many arms of the 
service in so many stages of the fray; and, 
moreover, introduces such an over-load of the 
symbolical and the figurative — and finally, in 
the lower part, a glimpse of the aftermath of 
the struggle — that one is at first bewildered, 
and after a time wearied in the effort to dis- 
entangle, to correlate, and to interpret. 

In a booklet descriptive of the monument, 
by Julia S. Conklin (of Westfield, Indiana) the 
group is described thus : 

The panel representing "War" is a battle scene, repre- 
senting cavalry, charging infantry and artillery. In the 
centre the fierce Goddess of War urges on the charge, 
while Columbia, in the background, upholds the stars 
and stripes. 

The description relates to the upper or re- 
lief group only. At the time it was written 
the lower group had not been placed in posi- 
tion. The latter shows three soldiers convers- 
ing ; one, a youthful-looking drummer, seems 
to be wounded — or homesick. 

[124] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

The description just cited seems very brief 
and inadequate. The fact is, in this booklet 
as well as in the writings of other Indiana 
people and in the newspapers, the chief mat- 
ters dwelt upon are the size of the monument 
and of its various parts, and the cost of the 
same. 

The Indianapolis "News," in a souvenir 
booklet describes the War group, or groups, 
as follows : 

The central figure of the War group, rising full from 
the outer edge of the group, is the Goddess of War in an 
advancing position, torch in hand, her countenance breath- 
ing threatenings and slaughter. Around her whirls the 
tide of battle, a general on horseback, the individual sol- 
dier in various attitudes, scouting, firing, advancing, lying 
wounded, while in the reliefs fading insensibly into the 
Monument are the rank and file of the advancing battle 
line. 

Yet in all of it we see no black man, though 
here, if anywhere — here, where there is pow- 
der smoke — he would seem most fittingly to 
have a place, both for his honor's sake and 
the truth's sake : for we well know that in the 
war which these scenes represent — the war 
to save the Union and to make universal lib- 
erty in this land a fact — as in all others of 
this nation's wars, the American Negro has 
been no "slacker." 

Turning now to the Peace group — wherein 
a black man appears, seemingly as an after- 

[125] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

thought or a sort of supernumerary — there 
is, artistically viewed, as much confusion and 
incoherence as in the other, and there is more 
over-loading; and in it the symbolical and 
the figurative are heedlessly and hopelessly 
mixed with the realistic and commonplace. 

The main idea which the group purports to 
represent is the home-coming of the soldiers 
after the War; a subject which in skillful 
hands may permit idealization — as indeed 
an}^ subject may — yet which does not require 
it. The booklet first before-quoted says of 
this group: 

The Peace group represents the home coming of the 
victorious troops — the happy reunion of families and the 
peaceful emblems of labor. In the centre Liberty upholds 
the flag, while at her feet the freed slave lifts up his bro- 
ken chains. The Angel of Peace hovering over the scene 
holds aloft the wreath of victory and the olive branch of 
peace. 

The description in the "News" booklet is 
about the same, but the freed slave is not 
mentioned, and "Liberty" is called the "God- 
dess of Peace." 

There would seem to be enough "doing" 
here to supply motifs for several groups. It 
reminds me of the "grand finale" of our old 
country tableau-exhibitions, in which finale 
(illuminated by red fire) we would try to in- 
troduce every character that had been used 
in the preceding "pictures" — from "Mother 

[126] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Goose" to the "Angel of the Resurrection," 
and from "Columbus" to "Uncle Tom and 
Eva" — adding, of course, "Uncle Sam" and 
"Columbia" with the Flag, and as many other 
characters as we were able to costume and 
could crowd on the stage. 

Referring to the "freed slave," recumbent in 
the fore-ground, he seems to be the only one 
in the whole ensemble that is giving "Liberty" 
(or the "Goddess of Peace" whichever it is) 
any attention ; and his appreciation seems to 
be almost solemnly "stagey." 

Perhaps after all, the designer of the group 
is not responsible for the slave's position and 
pose, nor even his presence; for it appears 
from the booklets mentioned, that the original 
design by Mr. Schmitz underwent some alter- 
ations at the hands of the committee. Per- 
haps one of the alterations was the addition 
of this "freed slave." Indeed it seems not an 
extravagant supposition that he was actually 
made and placed where he is, after the group 
or model had been otherwise completed. The 
motives for this addition — if it was an addi- 
tion — were no doubt laudable, to a degree; 
and although seemingly I am condemning it 
severely, yet it is not especially objectionable 
except to add to the artistic incoherence. On 
the other hand, I cannot see that it serves 
any worthwhile purpose so far as "we" are 

[127] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

concerned. And when I look at the relief I 
think of what Ruskin said concerning a cer- 
tain statue which he much admired, except 
for one thing. His objection lay against an 
obtrusive buckle, or some such appurtenance, 
which he said he could scarcely refrain from 
knocking off with his walking-stick. So like- 
wise, I feel an impulse to seize this "super" 
by his dangling foot and slide him gently off 
into oblivion — or else say to him, as sternly 
as I can : "Awake, awake, put on thy strength 
. . . shake thyself from the dust ; arise." You 
deserve a place at Liberty's side, not at her 
feet. Assist her soberly to uphold the Flag, 
while others rejoice ; for, but for your strong 
right arm the Flag would even now perhaps 
be trailing in the dust! 

SCULPTORS FROM THE SOUTH 
AND BLACK FOLK 

Mr. Lorado Taft in his "History of Ameri- 
can Sculpture," says (page 521) : 

With the exception of Edward Kemeys no sculptor of 
distinction has come as yet from the Southern states, — 
at least from the states below Virginia, — a fact which 
seems strange when one considers the culture of the 
South and its old-time wealth. . . . While Maryland and 
Virginia have given birth to several sculptors, the leading 
cities of these two states can boast to-day of only one 
each. The lone representative of the plastic arts in 

[128] 




**•;&&&&* 



29. Faithful Slaves Monument, Fort Mill, S. C. 




30. Peace, group, on Military Monument, Indianapolis, by 

Bruno Schmitz 




Copyright by Detroit Photographic Company 

31. War, group, on Military Monument, Indianapolis, by 

Bruno Schmitz 




32. L'Depart, group, on the Arc de Triomphe, Paris, by 

Fr, Rude 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Baltimore is Ephraim Keyser, who was born in that 
city in 1852. 

It may appear presumptive on my part to 
say it, but nevertheless, to me it does not seem 
strange that the South — the far South, at 
least — has produced no sculptors of distinc- 
tion; that is, has reared and fostered none. 
Indeed it would have seemed strange to me 
if it had been otherwise. 

It will be noted that Mr. Taft says merely 
that the two states mentioned have "given 
birth" to several sculptors. At the time he 
was writing (1903) these states had one sculp- 
tor each. Farther south there was none. 
Moreover, it appears that Mr. Taft is over- 
generous in crediting Kemeys to the South, 
for, while he was born in Savannah (in 1843), 
"his parents were Northerners and removed 
soon after to New York City"; as Mr. Taft 
states. Kemeys never afterwards lived in the 
South, and he fought through the Civil War 
in the Federal army. 

It would not be difficult, I imagine, using 
the above statements for a text, to preach a 
"lay sermon" here on the causes and conse- 
quences of the conditions stated ; but that is 
outside the scope of our subject. I will say, 
however, that I think the difficulty is not so 
much lack of talent as lack of the environ- 
ment, and the freedom, which fosters art of 

[129] 






EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

the higher, which means the nobler, class. 

Coming back to the statement that the lead- 
ing cities of Maryland and Virginia, that is, 
Baltimore and Richmond, have but one sculp- 
tor each, we have naturally to inquire, have 
these sculptors or any of their predecessors 
ever depicted any Black Folk, and if so, after 
what manner were they portrayed? Seeing 
that Black Folk have surrounded these sculp- 
tors, indeed, would seem to have crowded in- 
to their attention, on every hand ; and, more- 
over, seeing that these "picturesque and pa- 
thetic folk" have proved to be so attractive to 
Northern and foreign artists, one would sup- 
pose that in a goodly pari of the works of 
these Southerners, Black Folk would appear ; 
but, so far as my own search has gone, such 
portrayals have been astonishingly few. 

Apparently, Mr. Keyser, who is named as 
Baltimore's representative, has done no Black 
Folk whatever. Richmond's representative, 
Edward Valentine, is credited by Mr. Taft 
with two of such works. He states that Val- 
entine studied abroad and returned to Rich- 
mond (his birthplace) in 1865, at the age of 
twenty-seven. He then says of Valentine : 

No commissions came to him in those dark days, but 
he did a number of ideal heads, among others. . . "The 
Nation's Ward," a laughing darky boy. Another study of 
the African, somewhat akin to the contemporaneous 

[130] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

"Rogers groups" was entitled, "Knowledge is Power," 
and showed a negro boy, clothed in tatters, who has 
fallen asleep with his dog-eared book dropping from a 
very limp hand.* 

The description of the last-named figure is 
clear enough, but an interpretation of the 
sculptor's meaning is not so easy, especially 
in view of the name he gave the figure. 
Seemingly, it is intended to be a bit of sar- 
casm; but perhaps not. It brings to mind a 
discussion I once heard as to the meaning of 
the phrase — which happened to be the name 
of an Indian — "Afraid of nothing." Some 
held that it meant, if applied descriptively to 
a person, that the person was not afraid of 
anything, that is, was without fear. Others 
held that it meant just the opposite ; that is, 
that the person was so excessively timid that 
he was not only afraid of everything but was 
even afraid of things less than imaginary — 
no thing at all. So Mr. Valentine's ragged 
Negro boy with the dog-eared book — asleep — 
may be intended as an indictment, or it may 
be a take-off. Perhaps it was purposed to be, 
what, in view of its name, it surely is, an in- 
scrutable bit of ambiguity. In any case, its 
art" is on a level with an "end-man's" joke. 

* He also made a statue which he named "Unc' Henry." 
I have not seen a description of it. 



[131] 



M 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

BLACK FOLK IN THE SCULPTURE 
AT THE CENTENNIAL 

At the Centennial Exposition in 1876, Black 
Folk figured in a number of the exhibited 
works of art including several pieces of sculp- 
ture. But, so far as I have learned, at none 
of the International Expositions since then 
has there been among the exhibited works 
any sculpture showing Black Folk. 

With the exception of two or three of the 
"Rogers Groups" (which groups will be dis- 
cussed shortly), the pieces of sculpture exhibi- 
ted at the Centennial which showed Black 
Folk were the work of foreign artists. These 
works by foreigners are not strictly within 
our subject. However, since they were ex- 
hibited in America and since some of them 
may have remained in this country, perhaps 
we should regard them as American sculpture. 

An ideal figure named L'Africaine, which 
was the work of E. Caroni, a well-known 
sculptor and teacher of Florence, is pictured 
and commented on in several books and mag- 
azine articles. In Strahan's "Masterpieces of 
the Centennial" it is discussed at length and 
highly praised for its technical excellences, 
especially the "expressive touch" which gave 
the effect of "crisped tresses." 

[132] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Strahan* also discusses the figure from an- 
other standpoint. And, with what he perhaps 
thinks is accomplished finesse, he uses his 
comments as the vehicle of an innuendo, dis- 
paraging to the Afric queen, and her kind; 
which disparagement is foreign to anything 
that Meyerbeer says or suggests in his beauti- 
ful opera, the heroine of which Signor Caroni 
has here embodied in chaste marble, t Stra- 
han says (page 95) : 

In the "Africaine" we have the heroine of Meyerbeer's 
opera, the black Afric queen whose dusky soul was illum- 
ined by the light of tenderness at the visit of Vasco de 
Gama.f 

For these primitive intelligences love is the apple of 
knowledge ; when once it is bitten, the nature is changed 
and the Eden is spoiled, the contentment is lost, and the 
whole soul is thrown into the passion of desire, for bliss 
or for despair. In Signor Caroni's picturesque work we 
have the uncultivated queen tortured by the pangs of a 
bootless passion, her supple body thrown broodingly 
beside the couch where her hero dreams of another, and 
watching with jealous eyes the lips that murmur the 
name of her rival. 

O Art ; what devilment is concocted in thy 
name! 

A colossal bronze figure which attracted 
much attention was called "Emancipation" or 
"The Freed Slave." It was the work of F. 
Pezzicar, an Austrian. McCabe's "History of 

* "Strahan" is a pseudonym. His real name is Edw. Shinn. 
t See Notes 

[133] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

the Centennial" says of this figure (page 532) : 

The negro exultantly displays Abraham Lincoln's Proc- 
lamation of Emancipation, and his chains lie broken at 
his feet. 

It is also stated that there were admiring 
crowds about it all the time. 

McCabe also mentions (page 536) a figure 
by Malfatti (Italian), named "Emancipation," 
which, he says, "attracted considerable atten- 
tion." He gives no description nor picture of 
the figure. 

Notwithstanding the admiring crowds about 
Pezzicar's "Freed Slave," there were not want- 
ing Americans who did not like it because it 
portrayed the Negro in a too-creditable as- 
pect * Bruce, in his book on the Centennial/ 
makes very sarcastic reference to it because 
it showed a "frontal development" etc., which 
he says he regards as out of the Negro's line. 

Sandhurst's book, "The Great Centennial," 
shows a wood-cut picture (page 84) of a 
figure which carries the name L'Abolizione. 
The base bears the signature, Ruguso Vin- 
cenzo, and it is credited to the Italian gallery. 
I find in the book no explanation of the figure 
nor comment on it. 

*If my memory is not at fault, this figure was almost fully 
clo'vhed : and stood erect, holding the unrolled Proclama- 
tion in his elevated right hand. 

t "The Century ; its Fruits and its Festival." 

[134] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Bruce, who did not relish Pezzicar's figure, 
must have overlooked this naked and uncouth 
barbarian.* No doubt her "pudgy" limbs and 
imbecile, sensual features would have impres- 
sed him favorably. And Vincenzo, whoever 
he was, though he probably had never seen 
an American Negro, in the flesh, or an African 
one either, for that matter ; yet he no doubt 
had a very elevated, if hazy, conception of 
Emancipation [abolition] and he was anxious 
to show us his regard for it, seeing that it 
would condescend to recognize and stoop to 
bless — or, it may be he thought, literally to 
un-chain — such creatures as the one here 
depicted. 

After all, Vincenzo's feeling, and Pezzicar's 
too, concerning Emancipation, did not differ 
materially from that of people generally, black 
and white alike. The fact is, the conditions 
of being exploited, held down, even enslaved 
in one form or another, are so common and 
so old, that people, the victims included, come 
to regard these conditions as natural if not 
right ; at anyrate, as necessary or unavoidable. 
So Emancipation — even under the circum- 
stances through v/hich it came about in this 
country — is conceived and expressed nearly 

♦Though naked, the figure is not "nude." The artist has 
"dressed" her — with arm-bands, ear-rings, a tobacco-leaf 
head-dress, etc. — as he thinks becomes her state and her 
station. 

[135] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

always as a bestowal ; seldom or never as a 
restitution. Hence American art — and for- 
eign art, too, it seems — usually puts it : object- 
ively, "See what's been done for you"; or, 
subjectively, "Look what's been done for me." 

"ETHIOPIA" AND "TOUSSAINT L'OUVERTURE" 
BY ANNE WHITNEY 

The late Anne Whitney, who died in Janu- 
ary, 1915, modeled at least two notable figures 
which come within the scope of our subject. 

At the time of her death (at the age of 93) 
Miss Whitney was perhaps the oldest Ameri- 
can sculptor of national reputation. 

Fortunately the two figures to which I have 
referred have been so well described and in- 
terpreted by another that I need to do little 
else than quote that person's words. The de- 
scriptions are comprised in a sketch of Miss 
Whitney in a book entitled "Our Famous 
Women," published about 1883. In this book 
thirty American women are sketched by 
twenty different authors, themselves women. 
Miss Whitney's career up to that time was 
sketched by Mrs. Mary A. Liver more. 

At the time of Miss Whitney's death, the 
Boston "Globe" said of her : 

Her first work "of consequence was a statue of "Lady 
Godiva." Next came the "Lotus Eater," and then a work 

[136] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

•which was the fruit of her thought and feeling on slav- 
ery. It was called "Ethiopia" — a reclining figure of a 
young Negro woman, half nude, raising herself on one 
elbow and shading her eyes — awakening. She destroyed 
this statue for some reason, although she long afterward 
said, "It was one of the best things I ever did." She next 
made a statue of Toussaint L'Overture, whose sufferings 
for his race strongly appealed to her. 

Miss Whitney's "Godiva" was exhibited in 
Boston in the early part of the Civil War. 
Following a description of that statue, Mrs. 
Livermore says : 

A few weeks later, Miss Whitney added to her growing 
fame by placing at its side her "Africa," * — a colossal 
statue of another type, the expression of a grander and 
nobler thought. Her deep interest in the slaves of the 
South, her ability to forecast the inevitable sequence of 
the heroic events which hastened, one on the heels of 
the other, — for it was during the civil war, — uplifted 
her to the summit of prophecy, and she saw in the near 
future the deliverance of a race from imbruting bondage, 
-and, later, the illumination of the dark continent from 
which it sprang. This grand and mighty conception she 
sought to embody in form. If the attempt savored of 
audacity, undertaken at that early stage of Miss Whit- 
ney's art career, she was justified, not only by the blood 
of the reformer that thrilled in her veins, but by her re- 
markable success. 

The symbolization is that of a colossal Ethiopian wo- 
man, in a half recumbent position. The immense pro- 
portions of the statue expresses the teeming luxuriance 
•of the tropics in which she had her birth. She has been 
sleeping for ages in the glowing sands of the desert, out 

♦This is the only place I have seen it called "Africa." 

1137] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

of which she is lifting herself. The measured tramp of 
armies, marching for her deliverance, the thunder of 
artillery, the shock and roar of battle, have awakened 
her. Half rising, with sleep yet heavy on her eyelids, 
she supports herself on the left hand and arm, while she 
listens with fear and wonder to the sound of broken 
chains and shackles falling around her. The glory of 
a new day shines full upon her, and with her right hand 
she shades her eyes from the painful light. Doubt, fear, 
wonder, hope, pain, are all marvellously blended in the 
half -awakened face. 

The base of the statue bore the inscription, "And Ethi- 
opia shall soon stretch out her hands to God." It was a 
masterly design, wrought out in a most triumphant man- 
ner. It imitated no model, followed no tradition, copied 
no antique, but was a fresh, original master-piece of gen- 
ius, contributed to the art and history of the time. 

Its reception by the public was most gratifying. Not 
only in Boston, but in New York, where it was exhibited 
with the "Godiva," it attracted attention to the artist, 
who was declared "not merely high among female art- 
ists, but high in art itself, that knows no sex." The 
African race was then the subject of absorbing interest. 
All the air was astir with nobler interpretations of lib- 
erty than had been dreamed of before, and on all lips 
thrilled the inquiry, "What is to be the future of this 
newly-freed people ? " * 

The throngs that visited the gigantic "Africa" stood 
dumb before her. So legible and well-expressed was the 
sentiment of the artist, that even the uninstructed in art- 
throbbed in sympathy with it. It received much intelli- 
gent and some extravagant praise, as did the "Godiva," 
and also much criticism, which its author welcomed. For 
no one can criticise her work more severely than herself, 
her ideal being very high, and her character unblemished- 
by weak egotism. 

[138] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

It is to be regretted that Miss Whitney had no oppor- 
tunity to put this statue into enduring bronze. Not only 
the nobleness of the conception, but the fact that it was 
inspired by one of the grandest incidents in American 
history, should confer on it the immortality of bronze or 
marble. To future generations it would take high rank 
as a historic statue, keeping green the memory of the 
time when, on the top wave of a nation's righteous 
wrath with slavery, four millions of slaves were lifted to 
the level of freemen. 

It will be noted that Mrs. Livermore says 
that the statue was not put into bronze ; nei- 
ther was it made into marble. 

When this statue was modeled by Miss 
Whitney, she was very young in years and 
in her profession. Study and experience gave 
her in later years far greater dexterity and 
artistic ability ; but no subsequent work was 
characterized by more elevated thought ; and 
some persons, including myself, will think 
that, despite certain lacks, this work was not 
merely one of the best things, but the very 
best thing, she ever did, although afterwards 
she did some excellent and notable things. I 
will not say "excellent for a woman" ; for that 
sort of praise, be it directed toward a particu- 
lar sex, or class, or race, is irritating to me. 
In my opinion, nothing more noble has been 
embodied in clay by an American sculptor. 
And I am very thankful that — through the 
kindness of Mrs. Olive Tilford Dargan of 

[139] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

Dorchester, Massachusetts, who sent me the 
photograph from which the picture here was 
made, — I am able to help to keep alive the 
memory of this gracious conception, which I 
should like to call "Ethiopia Awakening" ; for 
it was a fit and representative expression of 
the faith, the hope, and the "high resolve" of 
the noblest hearts and minds of the time. 

The statue lacked "finish," to be sure, and 
we notice also the same reticence or timidity 
in the modeling of the features that marked 
the most of the females of color that have 
been discussed. But nevertheless, it* was, 
without doubt, a work of great merit and of 
extraordinary significance ; albeit, the interest 
and appreciation of the American public were 
not sufficiently well-grounded to outlast for 
long the "stress and struggle" which brought 
'it into being. 

As Mrs. Livermore has stated, the statue 
was "inspired by one of the grandest events 
in American history," yet, as she also notes, 
the conception was also prophetic ; indeed, it 
was more prophetic than historic. In this, 
it was indicative of Miss Whitney's genius — 
her faith and her affection : a faith and an 
affection which comprehended not only the 
oppressed Blacks of America but those of 
despoiled Africa, as well. 

Very likely, some persons will regard as 

1140] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

extravagant, Mrs. Livermore's reference to 
this work as a "master-piece of genius." But 
the meanings of these words are not matters 
of stated definition, wholly. The meanings 
are determined by, or modified by, the per- 
sonal viewpoint and the individual tempera- 
ment. I have already repeated what Gonse 
says are the distinctive features of a master- 
piece. As for genius — the something more 
than talent or cleverness — Emerson asks, 
"What is genius but finer love ? " Whatever 
be our answers; however our souls may re- 
spond to Emerson's thought ; we must realize 
that, except under the stimulus of abounding 
faith and of wide-embracing affection, genius 
is unable to express itself; or, at the most, 
its efforts arouse only weak, un-moving re- 
sponses. Talent may strike the spark into 
the tinder which Faith has provided, but only 
the breath of Affection can vivify it into a 
flame. 

Mrs. Livermore states that shortly after the 
modeling of this statue, Miss Whitney went 
to Europe for study; remaining there five 
years. After her return, she modeled several 
notable works which are described by Mrs. 
Livermore. She then goes on, as follows : 

Miss Whitney's strong feeling against slavery once 
more expressed itself in a work of art. The subject of 
her next sketch was one of the most remarkable men of 

[141] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

the last generation, — the great St. Domingo chief, states- 
man, and governor, Toussaint L'Quverture, — an unmixed 
negro, born a slave, with no drop of white blood in his 
veins. He was the hero of Harriet Martineau's thrilling 
book, "The Hour and the Man." Wendell Phillips made 
him the subject of a superb lecture, delivered hundreds 
of times during the anti-slavery struggle of our country, 
in the leading towns and cities of the North 

It was this noble Haytien, whom the world would 
proudly remember in immortal marble but for his un- 
pardonable crime of wearing a black skin over his white 
soul, that Anne Whitney chose for her next sketch. 
Could she have selected a worthier subject ? The event 
of his life which she embodied in her representation, is 
his imprisonment by Napoleon. ... He sits alone in his 
stony dungeon, nude, save for a rude covering about the 
waist. . . He is scorned, betrayed, ignored, doomed — he 
must die. Above the lust of gold, pure in private life, 
generous in his use of power, always obedient to the law, 
he is yet to die, ignominiously, starved, like a rat in a 
hole. He comprehends it all. 

But not a line of his face betrays weakness or fear, — 
not a shade of bitterness or hate darkens it. Instead of 
this, it is noble in its expression of endurance and hero- 
ism. Intensely serious and sad, he leans forward, while 
his right hand indicates the inscription he has traced on 
the floor, Dieu se charge ! Forsaken by all, justice denied 
him, he is yet brave and strong ; for a just God is in the 
heavens. With Him he rests his case. 

The lines of the figure are admirable: and, while the 
face and form are full of force and character, there is 
great simplicity in Miss Whitney's treatment of the sub- 
ject. The technique of the sketch is so completely sub- 
ordinated to the grand idea, that one forgets to observe 
the methods by which it has been wrought, and looks be- 
yond to the hero whom it commemorates, with a heart 

[142] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

full of sympathy for his hard fate, and eyes dimmed with 
tears, for his unrecognized greatness. 

In addition to Mrs. Livermore's statement 
— which is at once an interpretation and an 
appreciation — I feel impelled to quote a few 
lines from Wordsworth's touching sonnet, ad- 
dressed to Toussaint — 

Though fallen thyself, never to rise again, 
Live and take comfort Thou hast left behind 
Powers that will work for thee ; earth, air and skies ; 
There's not a breathing of the common wind 
That will forget thee : thou hast great allies ; 
Thy friends are exultations, agonies, 
And love, and man's unconquerable mind. 

THE JOHN ROGERS' GROUPS 

From early in the sixties until late in the 
eighties, John Rogers (not identical with the 
Rogers previously mentioned) was busily en- 
gaged in his studio and shop in New York 
City, turning out those charming and appeal- 
ing "groups" which made him famous and 
made his name a household word throughout 
all the land. Miss Earle states in a letter that 
there were upward of 80,000 copies of the 
imore than fifty different groups made and 
-sold. From the frequency with which we 
older fellows used to see them, in show win- 
dows, in parlors, in schools, and raffled at 
fairs, in our younger days, it would seem that 

;[143] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

the above figures were none too high. Who 
of us that do not remember the little puce- 
colored, delicately-modeled figures and furni- 
ture and accessories in "Checkers up at the 
Farm," "The Favored Scholar," the various 
Shakespeare scenes, the "old school" doctor 
scowling at the other doctor across the pa- 
tient, and others of these groups ? 

The groups just named were among his so- 
called "Social Groups," which came out most- 
ly after the War. Among his "War Groups," 
(some of which came out after the War) were 
at least six which showed Black Folk in one 
form or another. These six groups were: 
"The Slave Auction," "The Fugitive's Story," 
"The Camp Fire or Making Friends with the 
Cook," "The Wounded Scout or a Friend in 
the Swamp," "Taking the Oath and Drawing 
Rations," and "Uncle Ned's School." (The 
names of these groups are not arranged in 
chronological order or, indeed, in any order.) 

The groups themselves or pictures of them 
with the names attached, so nearly tell their 
own stories that in most cases little needs to 
said of them by way of interpretation. How- 
ever, some observations as to the six in which 
we are particularly interested, may not be 
amiss. 

"The Slave Auction," which appeared in 
1860, was Mr. Rogers' first bid for favor. 

[144] 




33. The Army, group, on Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial 
Arch, Brooklyn, by Frederick MacMonnies 




34. L'Africaine, statue, exhibited at the Centennial Expo- 
sition, by E. Caroni 



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IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

The story in it is not quite so obvious as in 
some of his later groups : and it is easy to see 
that it is comparatively crude or lacking, in 
expression and in modeling. 6ut it proved to 
be his making. 

In this group there are three adult figures, 
also a child and a baby. The slave man, bare- 
foot and roughly but neatly dressed, stands at 
the side of a goods-box, behind which, on a 
smaller box, stands the auctioneer. The slave 
is a large, strong-limbed man. He stands stur- 
dily erect, with his arms folded across his am- 
ple chest, and he has a penetrating look in his 
eyes. A woman, apparently his wife, stands 
on the other side of the box. She is pressing 
to her bowed face a nearly naked baby whose 
chubby hand rests on her tear-wet cheek. 
She, too, is barefoot; but she looks neat. A 
small barefoot boy hides in the folds of her 
skirt. On the front of the box is tacked a 
piece of muslin bearing these words : 

GREAT SALE OF HORSES, CATTLE, 
NEGROES & OTHER FARM STOCK, 
THIS DAY AT PUBLIC AUCTION. 

Strangely enough, this group is in composi- 
tion one of the most "sculptural" of the many 
that he made. Indeed, one may almost say 
that Rogers in his successive works tended to 
get further and further away from what is re- 
garded as strictly sculptural subjects and 

[145] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

methods, and approached to mere pictorial 
story-telling. 

This is not the proper place to go into the 
pros and cons regarding the Rogers method 
of representation. It must not be assumed, 
however, that work of that sort does not re- 
quire ability as well as taste and skill. For 
my part, without renouncing one jot or tittle 
of my allegiance to the deeply purposeful and 
the sublime in art — especially in sculpture — 
I firmly hold that the Rogers groups were not 
merely artistic, they were real art, legitimate 
and sound, and besides, difficult to execute in 
the pleasing and satisfactory manner that this 
gifted, yet sincere and painstaking artist exe- 
cuted his every group and every figure. And 
the completed work evidenced and justified 
the study, the patience, and the seemingly 
loving effort bestowed upon it. 

As for the groups themselves, they exempli- 
fied not only the enthusiasm of their author, 
but his talent and his insight ; for invariably 
they carried human interest, and, in addition, 
often carried instruction or amusement or 
both, and some of them made strong appeals 
to the higher emotions. Call Rogers' work 
sculptural story-telling, if you will, but cer- 
tainly we may say of him, as was said of Jesus 
of Nazareth, that the common people heard 
him gladly. 

[146] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Furthermore, it can be said to the credit of 
Rogers, indeed to his honor, that, though few 
or none of his groups purported to be sublime 
and none were purely idealizations, yet in no 
case was he frivolous, and his humor, though 
usually frank and sometimes homely, always 
was wholesome and serious. 

The "Slave Auction," his first publicly ex- 
hibited work, was a story-telling group. The 
story, however, was one with a powerful and 
timely appeal. Under the conditions existing 
at the time of its appearance, in 1860, people, 
when viewing it, would scarcely fail to be 
touched by its pathos; and it would hardly 
fail to arouse a train of thought that would 
later ripen into action. 

"the fugitive's story" 

"The Fugitive's Story" is restrained and 
subdued, yet touching and eloquent in its ap- 
peal. The fugitive — a woman with a small 
baby in her arms and a small bundle contain- 
ing her all at her feet — stands before a desk 
at which sits a man whose features identify 
him as the valiant editor of the "Liberator," 
William Lloyd Garrison. Standing near by, 
are two other champions of Freedom : Henry 
Ward Beecher, preacher, and John Greenleaf 
Whittier, poet. Notwithstanding their diminu- 
tive size, these portrait figures are excellent 
likenesses. In fact, it is their presence and 

[147] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

their striking characterizations in this group, 
that most makes it notable. 

No doubt the artist would have liked to in- 
clude in it others equally as deserving: per- 
haps Phillips, Sumner, and Stevens; John 
Brown, Levi Coffin, and Frederick Douglass. 
But sculptural limitations would scarcely per- 
mit the inclusion of so many. However, these 
three fairly well represented the entire body 
of the Friends of Freedom, epitomizing, as 
they did, the three main divisions : the mili- 
tant, the political, and those whose chief ap- 
peal was to the heart and conscience. And 
Rogers, who evidently was well acquainted 
with the history of his time, and in full sym- 
pathy with the work of these men, brings out 
in a happy manner the varied temperaments 
of the three, each of whom, as I have indicat- 
ed, advocated a somewhat different method of 
combating slavery ; though all of them, as we 
know, were bitterly opposed to it. Indeed, as 
one looks at this group, it is difficult not to 
pay more attention to the listening "audience" 
than to the speaking "actor," the fugitive who 
is telling the story. 

Those who have some knowledge of the dif- 
ferent temperaments of these men, perhaps 
will best appreciate this group. How the 
fugitive's story must have stirred the fighting 
blood of Garrison, making him, if possible, 

[148] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

more determinedly aggressive and uncompro- 
mising than before ; we can imagine, but per- 
haps not fully appreciate, how the tender, po- 
etic heart of Whittier must have grieved ; and 
back of Beecher's pity and Godly indignation, 
a full realization of the injustice of the Na- 
tion's tolerance, was calculated to rouse his 
masterful mind to practical action. 

Although our picture of this group is a poor 
one, yet after studying it, we are bound to 
concede that Rogers could delineate charac- 
ter — personal character — when he chose to 
do so or had need ; for the figures here are 
not merely likenesses, they are also true and 
strong characterizations. 

"TAKING THE OATH" 

"Taking the Oath," Mr. Rogers, it is said, 
considered to be his best piece of work, al- 
though not all of us will agree with him as 
to that. 

The scene is laid in the South in a part of 
the Confederacy occupied at the time by the 
Union army. It shows a woman, who, driven 
by necessity, is taking the oath of allegiance 
to the Union before she will be permitted to 
draw rations from the Federal commissariat. 
It is probably her last resource, for we can 
well believe that the "invading" soldiers have 
relentlessly "levied on" everything of a sus- 
taining character which eyes could see or 

[149] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

picks and bayonets uncover. We can also be- 
lieve that the needs of the child which clings 
to her skirt had some influence in overcoming 
her evident reluctance to the making of the 
sacrifice which clearly she feels that she is 
making. The woman's ill-concealed "mental 
reservations" to the terms of the obnoxious 
oath are suggested with fine subtlety ; while 
the quizzical banter, yet half-sympathy, in the 
look of the young Yankee officer is depicted 
with consummate art and is decidedly taking. 
Young "Africanus" leans his chin on the bas- 
ket that is soon to be filled with the much- 
needed "grub," while he scans "missus' " face 
with questioning wonderment. 

Although these War Groups were made for 
"Northern consumption," there is in none of 
them anything that could reasonably give of- 
fense to the most ardent Southerner ; and this 
particular group is noteworthy because in it 
there is, perhaps, an equal appeal to South 
and North. It may be that is the reason that 
Mr. Rogers came to regard it as his best work. 

"the camp fire" 

"The Camp Fire or Making Friends with 
the Cook," is evidently an interesting group, 
but I have not been able to locate a copy of 
the group nor to secure a picture of it. How- 
ever, I think I have a fairly distinct recollec- 
tion of it and the thoughts it suggested to me 

[150] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

when a lad. Indeed, it interested me, then, 
perhaps more than any other of those that I 
saw, for reasons that will appear shortly. 

Mr. Taft quotes a brief description of the 
group which says : 

A hungry soldier seated upon an inverted basket, is 
reading a newspaper to an "intelligent contraband" who 
is stirring the tempting contents of a huge ebullient pot 
over a fire. 

Some one has said, and seriously, too, that it 
was "bacon and beans" which freed the slave 
and saved the Union; meaning that these 
were the chief articles of food which sus- 
tained the Northern armies during the long 
struggle. But I recall that, in this group, the 
half-absorbed, mysterious expression on the 
cook's face, together with the suggestive pose 
of his head, gave me the impression that in 
this particular stew there were "gregients" 
far more tempting than bacon and beans. I 
suspected, rather, that in this scene we had 
the denouement of one of those occasions that 
Uncle Frank used to tell us about after he 
came back from the War — occasions when 
necks were stretched and even broken to en- 
force "loyalty." According to Frank's narra- 
tion, when they would "hit" a new neighbor- 
hood they would "seize" all the fowls that 
were supposed to be six months old and over. 
The males would be ordered to "crow for the 

[151] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

Union." If the fowls refused, as of course 
these "rebel" cocks would usually do, they 
were forthwith "confiscated," with all of their 
"houses." We can readily guess the rest. 

"the wounded scout" 

We come now to consider the group which 
the eminent critic and historian whom I have 
quoted so copiously says is "one of the best if 
not the best of Rogers' works." The name 
of the group is, "The Wounded Scout or A 
Friend in the Swamp." 

If Mr. Taft means that it is sculpturally 
one of the best, assuredly few will dispute the 
claim ; for this group of two men, merged al- 
most into one, mutually supporting and com- 
plementing each other, conforms to the ac- 
cepted canons of sculptural art, except possi- 
bly some persons might object to the empha- 
sis placed on unimportant details. If on the 
other hand Mr. Taft means that in loftiness 
of conception this group is the best, I for one, 
accept his decision. 

His quoted description of this noble group 
is brief but comprehensive — 

A soldier torn and bleeding and far gone is rescued 
and raised up by a faithful and kind-souled negro. 

There is little need to add anything to this 
interpretation except perhaps to ask oneself 
whether this faithful and kind-souled Negro, 
who seemingly is mentally addressing the All- 

[152] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Merciful, is murmuring a prayer for guidance 
in caring for this new charge, or is whisper- 
ing thankfulness for being vouchsafed the op- 
portunity to succor one of his fellow-men. 

It may be said also that this group would 
have been equally as appealing, and just as 
true as to fact, if the uniform on the rescued 
soldier had been Confederate instead of Union. 

"UNCLE NED'S SCHOOL" 

When this monograph was put into its first 
form, there was one of the Rogers groups 
showing Black Folk, of the existence of which 
I was not aware. My attention was called to 
the group by the widow of Mr. Rogers, to 
whom I am also indebted for the picture 
of it. This group bears the name, "Uncle 
Ned's School." 

In at least one respect, this group is unique 
among the Rogers groups : all the persons in 
it are Black Folk. 

Simple as the group appears ; plain as seems 
the story it tells ; there seems to be an under- 
current of suggestion and at least a dash of — 
shall I say it ? — idealization. People probably 
will be astonished at my claim ; for most of us 
have come to regard idealization as having 
the quality of abstruseness, or of obscurity in 
meaning. And so it has, frequently, but not 
always. 

To be wholly frank about it, a careful study 

[153] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

of this group has brought me to believe, that, 
in common with others — perhaps from mere- 
ly following others — I had not appreciated 
the depth and insight of Rogers. To his sym- 
pathy, his sincerity, his artistic taste and skill, 
I have already paid my lowly tribute. Of his 
story-telling, I have said that the common 
people heard him gladly. However, story- 
telling, even that which the common people 
gladly hear, is not necessarily inconsequen- 
tial, frivolous or shallow, no matter how 
plain. Any child can understand the stories 
of the Prodigal Son and the Good Samaritan ; 
yet on each of these, there have been built 
sermons and books from the mightiest minds, 
and the themes probably have not been ex- 
hausted. I do not wish to cancel anything 
that I have said about John Rogers, sculptor, 
but I beg permission to add something. 

Everyone is familiar with Millet's picture, 
"The Sower," and people would regard me as 
reflecting on their intelligences if I should 
ask whether they understood the picture's 
meaning. "Plain enough," they would say, 
"a man sowing seed." Without asking any 
questions, permit me to quote a little of what 
Prof. J. C. Van Dyke says that Millet had in 
mind to show by "The Sower" — the ideas be- 
hind the picture. He says : 

The dusk of evening, with its warm shadows falls about 

[154 J 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

the Sower ; the heavy air, which the earth seems to ex- 
hale at sunset, enshrouds him ; luminous color-qualities 
form his back-ground ; a rhythm of line, a swinging mo- 
tion, give him strength and vitality In the twilight 

sky, in the deep-shadowed foreground, we see that the 
Sower works late ; in the sweat and dust upon his face 
and the hat crowded over his brow, we see that he is 
weary with toil ; in the serious eyes looking out from 
their deep sockets we see the severity of his fate ; yet 
the strong foot does not flinch, the swinging arm does 
not falter, the parched lips do not murmur. His life is 
but a struggle for bare existence, a battling against odds, 
but how noble the struggle ! how strong the battle ! A 
type of thousands in the humble walks of life, bearing 
patiently the burdens laid upon him, though the world 
has long neglected him, and fame has never honored him, 
yet he is no less a man, a brave man, a hero.* 

There is more, but perhaps I have quoted 
enough. If Van Dyke is correct, have we not 
a right to say that there is idealization in 
Millet's simple figure; although it seems at 
first to be showing merely a single, simple 
action — telling a short, plain story? And 
what Van Dyke says is not merely his per- 
sonal fancy; there are good reasons for be- 
lieving that those ideas or similar ideas were 
in the artist's mind. 

Regarding another simple picture by the 
same artist, "The Woman Carrying Water," 
Kenyon Cox quotes the painter's own words : 

I have tried to show that she is neither a water-carrier 

* "Art for Art's Sake," page 32 

[155] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

nor yet a servant, but simply a woman drawing water for 
the use of her household — to make soup for her husband 
and children. I have tried to make her look as if she 
were carrying neither more nor less than the weight of 
the buckets full of water; and that through the kind of 
grimace which the load forces her to make, and the 
blinking of her eyes in the sunlight, you should be able 
to see the air of rustic kindness on her face. ... I have 
tried to make her do her work simply and cheerfully, 
without regarding as a burden this act which, like other 
household duties, is a part of her daily task, the habit of 
her life. I have also tried to make people feel the fresh- 
ness of the well, and [yet] to show by its ancient air how 
many generations have come there before her to draw 
water.* 

So when we look at a picture or a group of 
statuary or even a single figure, let us. if we 
will, criticise it technically — as to proper pro- 
portion of limbs and features, fitness of de- 
sign, harmony of arrangement, etc. But if 
we would get the most out of it, we should 
strive to go deeper — to get the artist's point 
of view if we can or, if we fear we do not get 
his point of view, seek to get one of our own, 
and from it study out the fundamental mean- 
ing and intention. 

Another thought: We walk along and cas- 
ually see a little flower — a weed we proba- 
bly should call it — sticking out of a crevice 
in a wall. Would it attract our attention? 
Not likely; for, among other reasons, these 

* "Tae Classic Point of View," page 55 

[156] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

flowers, or weeds, in the crannies are usually 
of the smallest, scrawniest, most insignificant 
sort. But listen to Tennyson : 

Flower in the crannied wall, 

I pluck you out of the crannies, 

I hold you here, root and all, in my hand, 

Little flower — but if I could understand 

What you are, root and all, and all in all, 

I should know what God and man is. 

Therefore, if we were to see a picture or a 
figure representing simply a man, or even a 
child, looking at a flower held in his hand, it 
would not be safe to assert that the artist had 
no higher intention than to picture a thing of 
beauty, if it were indeed beautiful ; nor safe 
to say of it, in modern phraseology, it is sim- 
ply, "art for art's sake." It may be possible 
that the artist is trying to impress on us the 
longing of some aspiring soul, seeking, as 
Lowell expresses it, "to win the secret of a 
weed's plain heart." 

It has been said that Millet wanted to set 
forth pictorially an "Epic of the Soil," and 
"the first book of it was the sowing of the 
seed" ; hence the picture we were discussing, 
"The Sower." He afterward painted other 
pictures which may be regarded as continu- 
ing the series — "The Gleaners," "The Ange- 
lus," and others. 

It would take us too far for me to attempt 

[157} 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

to trace the steps of thought by which I 
arrived at the conviction (but it is now easy 
for me to believe) that Rogers, in the groups 
we have considered, had more or less con- 
sciously in mind something of the same sort. 
Let us call it an "Epic of Freedom." Here in 
this group, "Uncle Ned's School," we may 
think we see one of the later "books" of the 
series. It would not be difficult for us to ar- 
range the other groups in some sort of pro- 
gressive order, beginning with "The Slave 
Auction" ; but it is not necessary to follow up 
this idea now. 

The group, "Uncle Ned's School," may be 
described as follows: A young miss with 
smiling face, holds before "Uncle Ned" an 
open book. She points to something in the 
book at which "Uncle Ned" looks intently 
but with a perplexed and troubled counte- 
nance. He has paused in his work of shining 
a boot which is "on" his left hand and arm ; 
the shoe-brush is held in the other hand. His 
breeches are much patched in a crude fash- 
ion. Over the box (cupboard) beside which 
he stands, one bare foot hangs in reach of a 
small boy sitting on the ground in front of 
the box. The boy has put aside a well- 
thumbed book and is in the act of tickling 
"Uncle Ned's" dangling foot. All the figures 
are carefully and sympathetically studied. 

[158] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

The young woman especially is a fine char- 
acterization — a young miss who, notwith- 
standing her very plain frock and her bare 
feet and ankles, has dignity, composure, and 
self-reliance — the poise which grows out of, 
and which accompanies, intellectual training. 
I doubt whether anyone who had not seen 
this group or a picture of it would surmise 
from the name of it that "Uncle Ned" is not 
teacher but is scholar; nor would it be sup- 
posed that there is depicted no school at all, 
in the ordinary sense. Where is the school ? 
Is it in, or on, or beside, the ramshackle box- 
cup-board ? or, must we imagine it to be near- 
by the imaginary cabin or cabins, to which 
the cup-board and perhaps "Uncle Ned" and 
the others belong ? "Oh ! " it will be said, im- 
patiently, "It is not necessary to draw the 
matter so fine. Rogers simply means that 
'Uncle Ned' is being taught ; so in a sense is 
going to school : that's all." But is that all ? 
Who is teaching "Uncle Ned" ? Is it not prob- 
able that his teacher is more advanced than 
he is? Look at her countenance. Is it not 
illumined by a developed mind which shines 
through it ? In short, can wc not see that we 
have here a "story" — an idealized story — 
reaching backward and forward as well? 
"Uncle Ned," grown to maturity before the 
War, — no opportunity, no learning — hence 

[159] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

the dull, un-responsive mind, disclosing itself 
in the be-fogged, discomfited look. He knows 
just enough to black boots, and old age is 
creeping on him ; but — passing strange ; the 
marvel of mankind — he desires to learn ; nay 
more, he strives to begin learning, and, book- 
learning, at that. 

He must be lacking in thrift — why don't 
he hurry through that shine and try to get 
another ? He might be "accumulating" even 
now, and also be giving the young folks a les- 
son in thrift. But he pauses in his work to 
make another try at that book. Is he really 
trying, or is he simply looking perfunctorily 
or complaisantly ? Note the tension in his at- 
titude, while the serene young miss smiles 
with sympathetic gravity as she awaits the 
slow working of the unpracticed brain. She 
is barefoot, and is cheaply, if neatly, dressed. 
But no matter ; she has been attending school 
— a public school, no doubt. Probably the 
school was started by some Yankee "enthu- 
siast," but it is now most likely supported far 
better by public taxation : this, under the new 
state constitution and laws, made by men who 
have begun the building of the New South, 
supported by the labor and the votes of a 
million "Uncle Neds." 

Rogers' unquenchable humor must have 
expression, of course. 

[160] 




37. Toussaint L'Ouverture,' statue, by Anne Whitney 




38. The Slave Auction, group, by John Rogers 





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39. The Fugitive's Story, group, by John Rogers 




40. Taking the Oath and Drawing Rations, group, by 

John Rogers 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Perhaps I may be permitted a digression 
here to say that humor, real humor, — humor, 
such as Rogers displays — is far above the 
merely funny or ridiculous or satirical. It is 
indeed a rare and precious gift. Carlyle says 
of true humor : 

It is a sort of inverse sublimity; exalting, as it were, 
into our affections what is below us, while sublimity 
draws down into our affections what is above us. The 
former is scarcely less precious than the latter ; perhaps 
it is still rarer, and, as a test of genius, still more decisive. 

If that be the function of true humor, those 
who choose may regard this entire group as 
humorous ; I shall not take issue. But I was 
saying : Rogers' humor must have expression, 
so we have here the irrepressible and mischief- 
loving urchin, who inhabits every land and in- 
fests every temple of worship and of learn- 
ing, and every cabin's sunny side. He is black 
here, of course. But he, too, has a book. Its 
condition indicates that it has been used, al- 
though he has put it aside for the moment. 
I am glad that it is a book, even if it is not in 
use just at present. I am glad that he has not 
been merely "training" with a hoe or a hand- 
saw. 

I am glad that the serene young miss does 
not appear to notice the "practical" needs of 
"Uncle Ned," and insist on applying some 
"domestic science" to his crudely patched 

[161] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

trousers. Apparently her draughts from the 
Pierian spring have not been diluted with 
that sort of "science." Very likely, too, her 
un-thrift — her devotion to the acquirement 
of knowledge — has kept her from owning 
even a brass thimble. It is not a serious lack. 
She can borrow one perhaps if she needs it 
badly. Very probably "Uncle Ned" has one 
which he would gladly exchange for a bare 
pinch of her understanding. 

I am very glad that the early "enthusiasts" 
started us right — with books. It will not be 
their fault, and not wholly ours, if we are 
pushed off, or inveigled off, the right track 
now. These people knew, and I believe that 
Rogers knew also, that advancement is easy 
and sure — to and with the hoe and the hand- 
saw and the thimble — from the book foun- 
dation, but extremely difficult, slow, and pre- 
carious the other way. Look at the group 
again. "Uncle Ned" strains his muscles, his 
nerves are in tension, his forehead wrinkles, 

his thick lips pucker ; but he just can't . 

Notwithstanding the evident thickness of the 
integument, it is possible that the tickling of 
his foot disconcerts him a little. What bear- 
ing, if any, that has on his perplexity, I shall 
leave for others to argue over. There is, 
however, no mistaking the placid, smiling as- 
surance of the girl who has been attending 

[162] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

school— the Public's school, and therefore, 
"Uncle Ned's School/' 

Maybe, after all, we are not justified in hold- 
ing that we have here a "book" in the "Epic 
of Freedom." Well, let us concede a little; 
let it be an Idyl. Then, following Rogers' 
usual plan of double or alternating names, 
we will re-name the group — "Uncle Ned's 
School or The First Fruits of Reconstruction." 

But let us admit and remember — and 
remember with thankfulness — that Rogers 
made his chief appeal to those whom we call 
the "common people" ; of whom I am pleased 
and proud to regard myself as one. 

In an article in the New England Magazine 
(Feb., 1896), William Ordway Partridge quotes 
the following lines from James Russell Lowell 
.as applicable to John Rogers : 

It may be glorious to write 

Thoughts that shall glad the two or three 

High souls, like those far stars that come in sight 

Once in a century ; — 

But better far to speak 

One single word, which now and then 

Shall wake their free nature in the weak 

And friendless souls of men. 

And so, John Rogers, the "People's Sculp- 
tor," is not without honor and regard in his 
own country ; and he has these nowhere more 
than in the grateful hearts of his Emancipated 
fellow-countrymen. 

[163] 



r 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 



THE SHAW MEMORIAL, BOSTON, 
BY AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS 

For artistic reasons, for racial reasons, and 
for personal reasons, I desire to direct special 
attention to a certain sculptural work, with 
the consideration of which we may properly- 
close* 

On the artistic side, let it be said as a be^ 
ginning, that this particular piece of sculpture 
is generally regarded as the finest work of art 
in America ; and for the subject portrayed — 
a forward-moving body of troops — it is the 
most impressive in the world. I refer to the 
splendid and surpassingly sublime memorial 
to Colonel Robert Gould Shaw and his black 
regiment which stands on Boston Common. 
It is the masterpiece of perhaps the greatest 
sculptor that America has yet produced, the 
late Augustus Saint-Gaudens. It was dedi- 
cated on Decoration Day, 1897. 

I need not tell you perhaps that the regi- 
ment represented is the 54th Massachusetts 
Volunteers, the first regiment of colored 
troops raised in the Free States. 

It seems to me fitting and proper that in a 
paper concerning Emancipation and the Freed 

* On account of the somewhat personal treatment of 
this topic, the wording of the original paper (lecture) is 
retained, unaltered. (See Preface.) 

[164] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

that we should pay liberal tribute to the Ne- 
gro soldiers and sailors, whose work, whose 
sacrifices, and whose valor, so fully justified, 
and so strongly contributed to make secure, 
the Freedom which had been proclaimed by 
President Lincoln. Already some things have 
been said concerning these men and their 
recognition in American sculpture; but in 
this panel — primarily personal, though it is 
— we see, not only a frank, generous, and al- 
together acceptable recognition of their patri- 
otism and valor, but we see suggested a great 
deal more. Indeed, this masterpiece is, at 
once, a memorial to a man, a race, and a 
cause. 

There is scarcely a limit to what properly 
may be said concerning this transcendent con- 
ception and its unsurpassed execution. If in 
American art there be any work which has an 
unquestioned right to be called inspired, sure- 
ly this is it. One could easily spend an hour 
in repeating the words of description, of inter- 
pretation, and of praise which writers and 
masters nave bestowed upon it. William H. 
Downes, for example, in his book, "Twelve 
Great Artists," devotes about two dozen pages 
to it. And yet, as to the main facts and ideas, 
the Memorial needs no explanation ; and while 
it permits, it does not really require, much in 
the way of interpretation. It largely speaks 

[165] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

for itself if you study it in the proper spirit. 
Nevertheless, a few of the many words that 
have been written concerning it may be inter- 
esting and helpful. 

Mr. Lorado Taft, in the comprehensive 
work from which I have quoted very liberally, 
gives the history of the man and the men, 
and of the special events which it was pur- 
posed that the memorial should commemo- 
rate ; and he also sets forth the largeness of 
the task which was set for the sculptor, and 
how, after years of devoted application, he 
rose grandly to the occasion. Mr. Taft sel- 
dom uses the superlative in his descriptions 
but he comes close to it in what I am about 
to quote, and later, when he comes to discuss 
the motif of this matchless work, he reaches 
both vividness and the superlative. He says : 

It is one of the most impressive monuments of modern 
times — one of the masterpieces of the 19th century. . . . 
There is nothing like it or suggestive of it in the annals 
of art. 

He then goes on : 

The scene is evidently the departure of the colored 
troops ; the leader a young man of noble mien who recog- 
nizes the significance of the fateful day [May 28, 1863]. 
With head set square upon the broad shoulders and sad 
eyes unflinching, he rides steadily to his fate. The fiery 
horse is a splendid sculptural achievement, clean cut and 
magnificently wrought, but conspicuous as he is, easily 
dominated by the presence of the silent rider. Then, be- 

[166] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

hind and across the entire background, march with 
swinging tread, the black men, their muskets over shoul- 
ders which bend under the burdensome knapsacks. They 
are equipped for a long journey from which not many 
will return. 

The movement of this great composition is extraordi- 
nary. We almost hear the roll of the drums and the 
shuffle of the heavy shoes. It makes the day of that 
brave departure very real again. 

The hopes and fears — the misgivings and 
yet the faith — bound up in this departure 
are perhaps beyond the realization of us of 
this generation. But in the hearts of those 
who were responsible for the sending forth 
of these men, there was seemingly unmixed 
and sublime faith. The misgivings dwelt not 
with those who had issued the call which 
these stout-hearted blacks had so eagerly an- 
swered. Yet it was reasonable to suppose 
that misgivings there were. That was but 
natural. Moreover, under the circumstances, 
there was almost unexampled courage on the 
part of the white officers, for reasons which 
most of you probably know or can surmise. 

Governor Andrew of Massachusetts made 
an address to the regiment in the course of 
which he said to Colonel Shaw : 

I know not, Mr. Commander, where in all human his- 
tory to any given thousand men in arms there has been 
committed a work at once so proud, so precious, so full 
of hope and glory, as the work committed to you. 

[167] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

When designing this memorial, Saint-Gau- 
dens no doubt learned all these things, if he 
had not known them before. Doubtless he 
also realized that the men of this regiment 
were representative and typical of the quar- 
ter-million black men — some formerly free, 
some slave — who wore "the blue" bravely, 
creditably, and effectively. But up to that 
time, none of the War memorials had given 
them any recognition.* Then there was the 
great drama of the War itself ; its purpose, its 
pathos, its glory, and its tragedy. All these, 
he felt should be, if possible, embodied in this 
memorial, or at least suggested by it. A les- 
ser man would have shrunk from the task. 
But as was said of Mary by the Evangelist, 
we may safely say of Saint-Gaudens : He kept 
all these things and pondered them in his 
heart. 

We may also rest assured that what we see 
here portrayed in this immortal work, is not 
the result, on the sculptor's part, of a lucky 
hit, a fortuitous chance, or a sudden and un- 
sought inspiration. I wish to emphasize this 
point, as perhaps should have been done in 
connection with some of the works discussed 
before. The point is, that, though in art-dis- 
cussion we frequently use the term "inspired," 
and have a right to use it, yet the expression 

* See Notes 

[168] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

should not be held to imply that the really- 
great and sublime conceptions have burst 
into, or out of, the supposed fortunate or the 
supposed "gifted" artists' minds, complete 
and full-panoplied, in a dream or over-night. 
It may, indeed, happen that a bare idea, even 
a fundamental idea, will spring up with some 
degree of spontaneity, but the completed 
work, such as we see here,— instinct with 
taste and technical mastery, yet sublime in its 
expressiveness and mighty in its moving pow- 
er, and withal, suffused with a melancholy 
beauty — such a work is, after all, more a de- 
velopment than a conception; taking the latter 
word in the sense in which it is commonly 
used. Masterpieces of this character are the 
result of much hard work and skilful tech- 
nical manipulation; but they are still more 
the consummation of prolonged study based 
on discernment, artistic taste, sympathy, and 
sincerity. In short, inspiration — or certainly 
the essential element in it — is devotion. 

Once or twice before, in these discussions, 
I have touched upon the parallelism of Poetry 
and Art. The poet and artist differ mainly 
in their respective methods of expression. 
The one uses words, usually set to measure, 
as the signs or symbols of ideas and for sug- 
gestion and imagery ; the other, for the same 
purposes, uses lines, pigments, and the plas- 

[169J 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

tic clay. Hence, in what I am about to quote, 
we may properly, substitute the word "artist" 
for the word "poet." Permit me again to 
quote Emerson — for I can quote no higher 
authority who has ever used our tongue — re- 
membering that the kind of poet he has in 
mind is the great poet, the master in his line, 
just as the artist of whom I am speaking is a 
master in his line. Emerson says : 

A poet is no rattlebrain, saying what comes upper- 
most, and because he says everything, saying, at last, 
something good : but a heart in unison with his time and 
country. There is nothing whimsical and fantastic in his 
production, but sweet and sad earnest, freighted with the 
weightiest convictions, and pointed with the most deter- 
mined aim, which any man or class know of in his times. 

So far as this particular work is concerned, 
what has just been said is fully borne out and 
confirmed by what we may read in various 
books and magazine articles, especially in the 
biography of Saint-Gaudens, prepared from 
his diary and his letters, by his son. 

Concerning the sculptor's devoted applica- 
tion to his self-imposed task, Mr. Taft says : 

For twelve years the project grew, not only in the 
sculptor's mind but in tangible form, with improvements 
from year to year, the while other works of simpler 
motif were being finished and leaving the studio. Well 
was the artist rewarded for his seeking and the commit- 
tee for their waiting. 

Let us listen for a minute to a part of what 

[170] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

Mr. Downes says regarding the memorial in 
the book that I named a few moments ago. 

And the black rank and file; with what a wonderful 
sense of human pathos, of fateful forward movement; 
with what warlike rhythmic momentum, as of marching 
legions tramping southward ; with what a suggestion of 
the slow but irresistible grinding of the mills of God, has 
the artist clothed these humble, united, obedient, devoted, 
doomed men I . . . Does not the martyrdom which over- 
hangs them ennoble them ? 

Unutterable sadness, sublime resignation, and an in- 
vincible determination is in all those set countenances, 
all facing the same way, all looking toward the South, 
all intent on a great final business and a glorious death. 

After quoting the above and some addi- 
tional, Mr. Taft goes on: 

Such is the orchestral accompaniment of this great 
work, the murmurous undertone that is awakened in 
one's mind, when even a reproduction of the relief is 
seen. 

What is it that gives this power to a bronze panel? 
Why should it bring dimness to the eyes and a grip to 
the heart? On what grounds do men call it the highest 
expression of American art ? 

It would take too much time to repeat Mr. 
Taft's rather long and involved answers to 
his own questions, but it may be said that he 
ends by stating that this monument is "the fit 
and adequate expression of America's new- 
born patriotism" ; by which he means, I take 
it, that what was then the Nation's new-born 
patriotism, when it shall have grown to its 

[171] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

full stature, will tower above the odious "color 
line" ; and that thereafter in America, no man 
will need to tremble for his country, when, 
with Jefferson, he remembers that God is just. 
We can now, I am sure, understand why it 
was that Rodin, the great French sculptor — 
perhaps the greatest master of modern times 
— reverently took off his hat before this mon- 
ument. It seems strangely providential that 
this greatest of American military memorials 
should have been inspired primarily by the 
valor and the devotion of Negro-American 
soldiery. 

Around the man who seeks a noble end, 
Not angels but divinities attend. — Emerson. 



Enough has been said, but perhaps after 
you shall have heard, you will pardon me if I 
close with a personal reference; for, aside 
from its artistic preeminence and its historic 
merits and associations, this memorial is par- 
ticularly dear to me. 

Many of the "devoted, doomed men" of this 
regiment and of the 55th, its companion reg- 
iment, though they served under the flag of 
Massachusetts — dear old Massachusetts — 
enlisted in my own state, were Ohio "boys," 
and were friends, neighbors, and relatives of 
me and mine. 

[172] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

And as I stood before this hallowed monu- 
ment in Boston, in the twilight stillness of a 
summer evening, struggling to drive the dim- 
ness from my eyes and the grip from my 
heart, I felt myself strangely moved; and 
a flood of memories swept over my mind. 
Some were sweetly sad, and some were in- 
spiring and glorious. Particularly did one 
tall, handsome fellow push into my memory* 
Of course I do not remember it, but I have 
been told, on' authority that I cannot doubt, 
that on that beautiful April morning in 1863, 
when the boys left our town, while the good- 
byes were being said, and tears and cheers 
and prayers were mingled, this stalwart fel- 
low gently pulled aside a slip of a girl and 
said to her quietly : "Now, Katie, don't forget ; 
you are to wait; and if I get back — you 
know." 

The most of our boys, pitiful to tell, did not 
return. The bloody ramparts of Wagner, the 
stubborn stand at Olustee, and the tragic mis- 
take of Honey Hill took heavy toll. But the 
boy who whispered to Katie, though he went 
through these; and though in the lurid twi- 
light-darkness of that memorable evening at 
Wagner when his beloved Colonel and so 
many of his comrades perished, he received 
a grievous wound ; and though he sustained 
another and still more grievous wound on 

[173] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

that awful night at Honey Hill where he and 
many of his comrades were necessarily aban- 
doned for the enemy to pick up or bury ; and 
though, while suffering from wounds, he spent 
weary, anxious months in Andersonville, that 
most dreadful of prison pens — passing more 
than once through the very valley and the 
shadow — yet, though no longer stalwart and 
handsome, yet, he came back, and he found 
that Katie had waited. And I am gratified to 
tell you that he still lives, and Katie, too ; and 
often do I see my own little daughter put her 
arms lovingly around this old veteran's neck 
and call him, "Grandpa," 



[174] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 



"HOPES OF THE FUTURE," 

FIGURES IN GROUP AT THE 

PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION, 

BY A. STIRLING CALDER 

Since the manuscript for the preceding por- 
tion of this monograph was written, there have 
been put on public view two notable pieces of 
sculpture at the Panama-Pacific Exposition 
which show Black Folk. These works are 
notable from the artistic and technical side 
and scarcely less so on account of their ele- 
vated tone. 

The groups referred to, are not among the 
exhibits proper; they are large, decorative 
compositions which crown the great arches 
at the east and west entrances to the "Court 
of the Universe," which is the main central 
court of the Exposition. The groups are 
named, "The Nations of the East," and "The 
Nations of the West," respectively. 

Both groups are principally symbolical ; yet 
the figures and accessories are, in the main, 
careful studies, and, historically and ethno- 
logically, are correct and true. 

The groups are the result of the elabora- 
tion of Messrs A. Sterling Calder, Frederick 
G. R, Roth, and Leo Lentelli. The conceptions 
are Mr. Calder's. He also modeled the figures 
in which we are chiefly interested. 

[175] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

Mr. Eugen Neuhaus, in his book, "The Art 
of the Exposition," describes the groups thus : 

One is irresitably drawn to these wonderfully effective 
compositions. Their location makes them the most 
prominent groups in the Exposition ensemble. 

The harmonious co-operation of Calder, Roth and 
Lentelli has resulted in the creation of a modern sub- 
stitute for the old Roman quadriga, which so generally 
crown triumphal arches. Both groups are so skilfully 
composed as to have a similar silhouette against the blue 
sky, but individually considered they are full of great 
variety of detail. It was an accomplishment to balance 
the huge bulk of the elephant by a prairie schooner on 
the opposite side of the court. Considering the almost 
painful simplicity of the costumes of the western nations 
as contrasted with the elaborate decorative accessories, 
trappings and tinsel of the Orient, it was no small task 
to producce a feeling of balance between these two for- 
eign motives. But what it lacked in that regard was 
made up by allegorical figures, like those on top of the 
prairie schooner, used not so much to express an idea 
as to fill out the space occupied by the howdah on the 
other side. There is a great deal of fine modeling in the 
individual figures on horse and camel back and on 
foot 

The Nations of the East . . . from left to right the fig- 
ures are — an Arab warrior, a Negro servitor bearing 
baskets of fruit, a camel and rider (the Egyptian), a fal- 
coner, an elephant with a howdah containing a figure 
embodying the spirit of the East, attended by Oriental 
mystics representing India, a Buddhist Lama bearing his 
emblem of authority, a camel and rider ( Mahometan ), 
a Negro servitor, and a Mongolian warrior. The size of 
the group, crowning a triumphal arch one hundred and 
sixty feet in height, may be inferred from the fact that 

[176] 




41. The Wounded Scout, group, by John Rogers 




42. Uncle Ned's School, group, by John Rogers 





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IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

the figure of the Negro servitor is thirteen feet six inches 

in height 

The Nations of the West, crowning the arch of the 
Setting Sun, . . . From left to right the figures are, the 
French Trapper, the Alaskan, the Latin-American, the 
German, the Hopes of the Future (a white boy and a 
Negro, riding on a wagon), Enterprise, the Mother of 
Tomorrow, the Italian, the Anglo-American, the Squaw, 
and the American Indian. The group is conceived in the 
same large monumental style as the Nations of the East. 
The types of those colonizing nations that at one time or 
place or another have left their stamp on our country 
have been selected to form the conception. 

If "we" had no other representation in these 
groups than in the conventional way* — as 
"servitors" — we could dismiss the matter as 
without any particular importance. Person- 
ally, however, I doubt whether the conven- 
tional interpretation which Neuhaus gives of 
the presence of the black men in the "Nations 
of the East" conforms to the intentions of the 
artist. There seems to be no more reason 
for regarding as "servitors," — that is as me- 
nials — the black men who, in this group, are 
bearing the fruits, than so to regard and 
designate the German and the Italian in the 
other group who are "attending" the oxen. 
I doubt whether the equivocal designation 
"servitors" was given by the artist; for, 
clearly, the black men are not "serving" any- 
body in a personal way. 

* Conventional in illustration and on the (popular) stage. 

[177] 



EMANCIPATION AND THE FREED 

But however that may be, certain it is 
that in the "Nations of the West," we have 
an unequivocal and most significant repre- 
sentation. So significant and suggestive is it 
that Professor Neuhaus can hardly believe 
the artist (Calder) to be serious in what is 
here represented. He is inclined to think 
that these figures on the wagon-top were, as 
he states it, "used not so much to express an 
idea as to fill out the space." Perhaps he is 
right, but I prefer to believe otherwise. 

I have seen no detailed interpretation of 
the figures which are called, "The Hopes of 
the Future." Indeed, none would seem to be 
needed. Their names clearly enough indicate 
their meaning * 

The groups themselves are of course made 
of materials not intended to last indefinitely. 
Like the most of exposition sculpture, they 
will probably be demolished with the build- 
ings at the close of the exposition. But their 
forms and their meanings have been, and will 
be, recorded in thousands of prints in books, 
magazines, and newspapers ; and millions of 
eyes will have viewed them where they stand 
and millions of minds and hearts will be con- 
sciously or unconsciously informed, impressed 

* In the book, "Palaces and Courts of the Exposition," 
by Juliet James, these figures are called, "The Heroes of 
Tomorrow." John D. Barry gives them the same name 
in his book, "The City of Domes." 

[178] 



IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

and uplifted by their reassuring prophecy. 

They are reassuring in what they portray 
but more so in their demonstration that mod- 
ern art, including American art, realizes not 
only its possibilities and opportunities, but its 
duties and responsibilities as well. 

The groups are extraordinarily large, ma- 
terially; but the hearts and minds behind 
their planning, execution, and exhibition were 
larger still. Let us hope that the figurative 
reassurance and prophecy which we here see 
crowning "The Nations of the West" is truly 
representative of the America of today. And, 
believing that it is, let us Black Folk press 
onward with renewed courage, and with un- 
flagging industry, and undiminished aspira- 
tion, highly resolved to justify the altruism 
and the faith which has given us so honor- 
able a place in this latest expression of repre- 
sentative American Art. 

The Spirit of Human Brotherhood is unbarring 
the Gates of Life to admit a civilization in which 
it can reign incarnate ; while out of the many 
threads of human life upon this planet, we are 
weaving the royal garments it shall wear. 

— Rev. Dr. Reverdy C. Ransom 



[179] 



f 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX 

As stated in the Preface, it is my intention 
to take up in a separate monograph the mat- 
ter of the contributions of Black Folk to art 
in America and elsewhere. There are some 
works that I propose to discuss in that mono- 
graph which might perhaps as properly be 
discussed in this. Among these works may 
be mentioned the following : 

a. Fourteen Tableau Groups designed and 
constructed by Mrs. Meta V. Warrick Fuller 
for the Jamestown Exposition in 1907. These 
were not strictly sculpture, but were plastic 
figures painted appropriately, and having 
natural hair. They were dressed to con- 
form to whatever characters they repre- 
sented. They were in groups of from three 
to twenty-seven. With each group there 
were associated such properties and accesso- 
ries as would tend to give more or less real" 
ism to the scenes represented. They were 
intended to set forth in graphic form a sort 
social history of the Negro in America. 

b. Busts and medallions of persons of color, 
modeled by Miss Edmonia Lewis, Mr. Isaac 
Hathaway, Mrs. May H. Jackson, and others. 

c. Works of relatively small size, chiefly 

[183] 



APPENDIX 



ornamental, in which figures of colored per- 
sons occur incidentally or humorously; for 
example, a small ash tray, by Mrs. Jackson, 
which includes the figure of a Negro baby. 



It would be manifestly impracticable, and 
perhaps not worth while, to attempt to de- 
scribe, or even to enumerate, the monuments, 
the tablets, etc., which have been made and 
erected in honor of people of color in America. 
However, of those which were erected or un- 
veiled in a public way, a few, on account of 
the importance of the persons commemorated 
or the circumstances of the erections, may be 
regarded as sufficiently notable to warrant 
brief mention ; among them, the following : 

A bust of Mr. Douglass occupies a niche in the Uni- 
versity of Rochester, placed there during his life by act 
of the municipal council and on one of the pillars of the 
State House at Albany, are the lineaments of the great 
orator and reformer. [Quoted from "The Negro in Ameri- 
can History," by John W. Cromwell.] 

The Henshaw Chapter of the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution have in recent years purchased the old Salem 
homestead at Leicester, made a public drinking fountain 
of the old well, and marked the old home-spot with a 
huge stone inscribed : "Here lived Peter Salem, a soldier 
of the Revolutionary War." A local chapter of the Sons 
of the Revolution have likewise marked his grave with 
a fitting stone in the Framingham cemetery. [From an 
article in "A. M. E. Church Review" for Oct., 1912, by 

[184] 



APPENDIX 

George W. Forbes, who states that he derived the most 
of the information from an article in the "Journal of 
American History," No. 1, 1911.] 

A tablet on the front of the Monumental Church in 
Richmond, Va., commemorates the heroic services of a 
Negro, Gabriel Ford, who rescued several persons during 
a fire which destroyed a theater, that stood on the spot, 
in 1811. In the fire many prominent persons, including 
the governor of the state, perished. [ From a letter from 
a friend; who, writing from memory, says he is not cer- 
tain as to the name on the tablet.] 

Upon one of the granite posts forming the gate- 
entrance to the reservation wherein is old Fort Griswold 
is a tablet bearing the names of those who took part in 
the contest of Sept. 6, 1781. The heading is : 

"Defenders of Fort Griswold 
September 6th, 1781 
Killed, Lieut. Col. William Ledyard, commanding" 

Then follow the names in alphabetical order of those 
killed. Among these are : 

"Jordan Freeman (negro)" 
"Lambo Latham (negro)" 

Next comes a list of those wounded and a list of those 
captured. No names of negroes appear in these columns. 

Within the old fort there is on the south wall a stone 
placed in the earth of the fort wall. This tablet shows 
in relief a British commander leading his men over the 
earthen wall of the fort, within which are shown three 
figures: one defender about to mount the wall and fire 
his musket, another kneeling and firing directly at the 
British officer, a third figure, that of a black man (the 
lips, hair, and features, clearly marking him as such), 
holding a long pike with which he is warding off the at- 

[185] 



APPENDIX 

tackers. The tablet bears the inscription: "The Death 
of Major William Montgomery while Leading the British 
attack on the Fort at this point, Sept. 6, 1781." 

The last-quoted description is kindly fur- 
nished to me by Mr. Frederick Wm. Edgerton, 
librarian of the public library at New London, 
Connecticut, where the fort named is located. 
The statement is no doubt as accurate as it is 
lucid and complete. It may be proper to add, 
for those whose history may be a little rusty, 
that the black man who is shown wielding the 
pike undoubtedly represents Jordan Freeman 
who is credited with putting Major Mont- 
gomery out of action forever, with a pike; par- 
alleling the feat of Peter Salem, named above, 
who shot down the British commander at 
Bunker Hill. Salem, however, was more for- 
tunate than Freeman, who, as the inscription 
above quoted shows, fell in the battle. 

In these works and in others cited and to 
be cited, in the North and in the South, we 
have representations and inscriptions, which, 
while agreeably frank, are unreservedly com- 
plimentary to Black Folk ; and, notwithstand- 
ing past injustices and present besetments, 
are hopeful auguries of a better day. 



See Notes for description of a memorial to 
faithful slaves at Barrington, Rhode Island. 

[186] 



APPENDIX 

The Colored Women's Clubs of New York 
have recently erected a monument at the 
grave of Mrs. Harriet Tubman (Davis) at 
Auburn, New York. (This is independent of 
the memorial tablet there, already discussed.) 

Movements have been started looking to 
the erection of memorials for other colored 
women and men of distinction. Among those 
most prominently mentioned are : Sojourner 
Truth, Phillis Wheatley, Amanda Smith, 
Frances Watkins Harper, and Fanny Jackson 
Coppin ; also Oliver Cromwell, a soldier of the 
Revolutionary War. 

It is earnestly hoped that these movements 
and others of like kind will be carried to suc- 
cess, and that opportunities will be embraced 
to bring out some works more artistic and 
stimulating than the ordinary gravestones. 
No doubt some of our colored sculptors, if en- 
couraged to try with others, could suggest, 
design, and produce memorials that would be 
creditable to all concerned. 



On and in several public buildings and a 
few business buildings in America, are the 
sculptured heads or busts of Negroes, gener- 
ally among similar heads or busts representa- 
tive of other races and nationalities. 

Some of these are little more than the work 

[187] 



APPENDIX 

of mechanics, others are works of real art. Of 
the latter class, perhaps the most notable are 
at the tops of the main columns of the City 
Hall, Philadelphia and in the St. Paul Building, 
New York City ; and on the window lintels of 
the New York Custom House and the Library 
of Congress. 

None of them are of particular interpreta- 
tive or historic interest. They are, generally 
speaking, merely "specimens," and are of the 
same general character as the specimen illus- 
trations in our dictionaries and geographies, 
wherein the moving purpose seems to be to 
show how curious, and extremely — or even 
freakishly — "different" (from us) are some of 
the genus homo. 



Almost as the last sheets of this monograph 
are passing through the press, I have learned 
of a figure that was exhibited at the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition. The figure bore the very 
disrespectful, if not positively offensive, name, 
"The Nigger." 

The catalogue shows that the figure was 
loaned for exhibition by Mrs. Harry Payne 
Whitney. It is mentioned in a review of 
American Sculpture by J. Nilsen Laurvik 
which is incorporated in a Catalogue de luxe 
of the Art of the Exposition, published by the 

[188] 



APPENDIX 

Paul Elder company. Mr. Laurvik refers to it 
merely as typifying the "realistic movement 
of our day." The sculptor was Arthur Lee. 

I have not been able, in the time at my dis- 
posal, to learn more about this figure [?] than 
Mr. Laurvik's statement says and suggests^ 
I have used the word "suggests" wittingly, 
for there is no denying that the combination 
of such a name with an assurance of "real- 
ism" suggests a production that would not 
and should not cause, in "us" at least, any 
thrills of gratification. Perhaps my misgivings 
are ill-founded. I hope that they are. 



[189] 



NOTES 




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46. Hopes of the Future, figures in group at Panama- 
Pacific Exposition, by A. Stirling Calder 



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47. The Death of Major Montgomery, tablet, in Old Fort 
Griswold, New London, Conn. 




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NOTES 

The Notes relate to matters which are 
discussed on the pages specified. 

Page 4 — 

Referring to the statue of "Freedom" on the Capitol, 
the following is found in a booklet entitled, "The Ro- 
tunda and the Dome," by Samuel Douglas Wyeth, pub- 
lished in 1869 (page 194) : 

"The following interesting incident connected with the 
model is narrated by Mr. Fisk Mills, a son of the artist 
and founder Clark Mills. The story has been variously 
told and published but now the true narrative is given. 

"Before the statue was cast, the several large sections 
of the plaster model were put together so nicely by an 
adroit Italian employed about the Capitol, that no crev- 
ices were perceptible at the places of joining — the bolts 
were all firmly riveted inside, and where they were placed 
concealed by coverings of plaster. In this condition the 
model was for some time on exhibition. 

"At length the time arrived when the figure was de- 
sired to be cast and the Italian was ordered to take the 
model apart. This he positively refused to 'do unless he 
was given a large increase in wages, and secured em- 
ployment for a number of years. He said, he alone 
' knew how to separate it ' and would do so only upon 
the above conditions. 

"Mr. Mills at that time owned a highly intelligent mu- 
latto slave named Philip Reed, who had long been em- 
ployed about his foundry as an expert workman. Philip 
undertook to take the model apart without injury, de- 
spite the Italian's assertion and proceeded to accomplish 
his purpose. His plan of working was this : a pulley and 

[193] 



NOTES 

tackle was brought into use and its hook was inserted 
into an eye attached to the head of the figure — the rope 
was then gently strained until the uppermost joining of 
the top section of the model began to make a faint ap- 
pearance 

"Mr. Reed, the former slave, is now in business for 
himself and is highly esteemed by all who know him." 

The matter of determining the correct story of the 
connection of the colored man with the statue re- 
ferred to, is somewhat foreign to our present purposes. 
However, I venture the opinion that the above narration 
covers only a part of ihe occurrences, and there are 
mechanical and technical considerations which indicate 
inexactness in some of Mr. Wyeth's information. 

What probably are the fundamental facts — omitting 
all references to motives and reasons — were narrated 
by Mr. George W. Forbes in an article in the "A. M. E. 
Church Review" for July, 1913, thus : 

"But hardly had the contract [for casting the figure] 
reached the shop before the special artist to whom the 
casting was assigned demanded an advance of $10.00 
per day for his service, and when the management re- 
fused his request, left the establishment. In this dilem- 
ma the management lined up the whole force of this 
branch of the work and called for a volunteer to perform 
the task. But no one ventured to assume the responsi- 
bility until a sturdy black stepped out from the line. The 
management, knowing his capacity, put him at once in 
charge of the task. Through this colored man's skill as 
a finished moulder, therefore " 

Page 5 — 

One of the best discussions of the Sibyls and the parts 
which they played in ancient history, literature, and art, 
may be found in "The Gospel Story in Art," by John La- 
Farge. Among other things he says : 

[194] 



NOTES 

"In ancient history there was a time when the prophe- 
cies of the Sibyls represented for the pagan world what 
the Jewish prophets did for the Hebrew story, and 
Michael Angelo, by his work in the Sistine Chapel, gives 
us the power of realizing this, as it did for the people of 
his day. . . . 

"Who were the Sibyls and what were their names, are 
questions tossed about. Of some we know. . . . Greek 
and Roman prophecy was limited to their speech. . . . 

"Varro has told us that the Greek word means 'the 
counsel of God.' " 

LaFarge continues the interesting discussion, which is 
largely from the standpoint of art, through several pages 
and brings out the fact that the Greek name of the 
Libyan Sibyl was "Hierophile." 

Page 9 — 

The modern processes of producing works of sculpture 
almost invariably involve as a fundamental step the 
making of a clay model by the sculptor. The subsequent 
products, whether in plaster, metal, or stone, are, in a 
sense, "copies" of this model, though the word has also 
another meaning. 

Usually, the sculptor's work substantially ends with the 
making of the model, the remainder of the work being 
done by more or less skilled workmen. 

If the work be "cast" into metal (almost invariably 
bronze) and more than one cast is made, all, of course, 
are alike, and each is called a "copy." Likewise the 
carver makes one or more "copies" in stone, all supposed 
to be exactly alike. The first one made is no more an 
"original" than is the second, third, or any subsequent 
one that is produced from the same model. 

In short, the word "copies" as used in the note on 
page 9 has the same meaning applied to the statues re- 
ferred to, as when the word is applied to books. Each 

[195] 



NOTES 

completed book is a "copy" — of the book. Hence we 
say, so many "copies" were issued, or, it sells for so 
much a "copy." 

Page 10 — 

Mrs. Stowe's statement, "she has passed from among 
us as a wave of the sea," would seem to imply that 
Sojourner Truth was not at that time (1863) living. She 
was then living, however, and did not die until 1883. 

There is also some question whether or not she was a 
"runaway." Mrs. Lelia A. Pendleton in her book, "A Nar- 
rative of the Negro," states that Sojourner (whose name 
was at that time Isabella) did run away while being 
illegally held in slavery in New York after she was en- 
titled to freedom under the state manumission act. This 
running away occurred apparently about 1838. Other 
writers do not confirm this occurrence. 

"Sojourner Truth" was of course an assumed name but 
it fitted her character admirably. A good sketch of her 
life may be found in John W. Cromwell's book, "The 
Negro in American History:" 

In this book the following interesting statement ap- 
pears (page 113) : 

"He [Story] told the authoress of 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' 
that the conception of another type of beauty in which 
' the elements of life, physical and spiritual, were of such 
excellence that the dark hue of the skin should seem only 
to add an appropriate charm, ' had never left him." 

Page 15 — 

The statement regarding the "Freedman," quoted by 
Tuckerman, which says, "Here is the simple figure of a 
semi-nude negro, sitting, it may be on the steps of the 
Capitol," probably formed the basis of a curious mistake 
which has had wide currency. The mistake locates- 

[196] 



NOTES 

"this" statuette "on the steps of the Capitol at Washing- 
ton." This error occurs in Clement and Hutton's "Artists 
of the Nineteenth Century" and in many other places. 

Of course no copy of the statuette is on the steps of 
the Capitol nor anywhere in or about the building. No 
copy of it is on public view in Washington, and almost 
certainly none ever was. 

It would, however, be a fine thing if what appears to 
be the last remaining copy which is for sale (by the 
Gorham Company, New York City) , could be secured to 
be placed on public view at the National Capital — the 
beautiful Carnegie Library building at Howard University 
suggests itself as a suitable place. 

The "Freedman" was on exhibition among the sculp- 
tures at the recent Panama-Pacific Exposition. Moreover, 
it drew favorable notice from Mr. Laurvik in his review 
of American sculpture in the Catalogue of the Exposition 
already referred to. With fine appreciation, he says of it : 

"Few productions of contemporary art have been re- 
ceived as so fully expressing the fervor of a great nation- 
al movement as the Freedman, though it was never exe- 
cuted larger than a statuette." 

Page 20 — 

For the information that Edmonia Lewis attended 

Oberlin College, I am indebted to Mrs. Mary B. Talbert 

-of Buffalo, N. Y. The information is confirmed by the 

College catalogues, 1859 to 1863, and by a letter from 

Doctor King, president of the College. 

Page 21 — 

Since the statements made on page 21 were put into 
type, I have succeeded, through friends, in locating Miss 
Lewis' "Freedwoman." The statue is in the possession 
•of a colored family in Boston. 

[197] 



NOTES 

I have not been able to secure a picture of it but am 
hoping to do so before this monograph finally issues. 

However, I have obtained, from a person who has seen 
the statue, the following data regarding it: Less than 
life size, about 2^ or 3 feet high ; on one knee, with 
hands extended ; broken chains on wrists ; partially 
draped with arms and feet bare. It is in marble. 

Page 24 — 

The Detroit monument was one of the very earliest of 
the War Monuments to be dedicated ; earlier even than 
the Lincoln Memorial at Springfield. 

In view of the fact that Black Folk were relatively few 
in Michigan, it is notable that the projectors of this fine 
memorial should have suggested the placing of one the 
race in such an honored place, or even have permitted 
it, possibly at the artist's suggestion. 

However, the colored people of Michigan, though few, 
were of exceptionally high character and attainments. 
Moreover, Sojourner Truth, at that time certainly, the 
most distinguished woman of Negro blood in America,, 
was then residing in Michigan. Francis H. Warren, Esq. 
refers to her (in a letter) as : "Michigan's first distin- 
guished woman, whose anti-slavery work no doubt moth- 
ered the thought to place the figure of a Negro woman 
on our Soldiers' Monument in Detroit." 

Page 28 — 

It may be of interest to note that Frederick Douglass 
was not pleased with the attitude and expression of the 
"kneeling slave" in Ball's group. Mr. Douglass delivered 
the principal address at the unveiling of the group in 
Washington in 1876. His address and the remarks of 
others made on the occasion are printed in a pamphlet 

Referring to the address as published in the pamphlet,. 

[198] 



NOTES 

Mr. John W. Cromwell writes to me as follows : 

"I have before me the oration of Mr. Douglass on the 
occasion of the unveiling of the monument in Lincoln 
Park, Washington, April 14, 1876. 

"I find, however, no criticism of the group in the pub- 
lished address; evidently it was an extempore utterance 
brought out by the occasion and the environment. He 
did, however, make the criticism and I was about fifteen 
feet — not more — from him during the entire address. 
He was very clear and emphatic in saying that he did 
not like the attitude ; it showed the Negro on his knees, 
when a mere manly attitude would have been more in- 
dicative of freedom." 

Page 29 — 

Mr. Ball informs us in his book that the Association 
paid $17,000 for the enlargement and the casting of the 
bronze group, which he indicates was a low figure. He 
says Congress appropriated the money for the pedestal. 

Page 30 — 

Following what is quoted on pages 29 and 30, the de- 
scription of the group is continued, in the booklet men- 
tioned, as follows : 

"The original was also changed by introducing, instead 
of an ideal slave, the figure of a living man, — the last 
slave ever taken up in Missouri under the fugitive slave 
law, and who was rescued from his captors (who had 
transcended their legal authority) under orders of the 
provost-marshal of Saint Louis. His name was Archer 
Alexander, and his condition of servitude legally contin- 
ued until emancipation was proclaimed and became the 
law of the land. A photographic picture was sent to 
Mr. Ball, who has given both the face and manly bearing 
of the negro. The ideal group is thus converted into 
the literal truth of history without losing anything of its 
artistic conception or effect." 

[199 J 



NOTES 

This description appears to have been copied almost 
verbatim from the pamphlet which contains the addresses 
at the unveiling of the group in Washington. The de- 
scription is a part of the remarks of Mr. James E. Yeat- 
man who represented the Western Sanitary Commis- 
sion, which was the organization that initiated the move- 
ment to organize the Freedmen for the purpose of erect- 
ing the memorial. 

I have already pointed out (page 31) that the descrip- 
tion appears to be more a statement of intentions and 
desires than of actual accomplishments so far as relates 
to the alterations enumerated on pages 29 and 30. 

It will be noted that one of the alterations enumerated 
in the part here quoted is the introduction of the figure 
of a living man in the place of the figure of "an ideal 
slave." The expression, "an ideal slave," while perhaps 
not technically incorrect, is apt to disconcert the ordin- 
ary reader. "The ideal [imaginary] figure of a slave," 
would perhaps be less objectionable in form and probably 
clearer also. But, be that as it may, it is worth noting 
that the figure of the slave in the original group was 
modeled by the sculptor after his own body viewed in a 
mirror — as he informs us in his book — no other 
"model" being at the time available. 

It is very probable that the alterations that were based 
on the photograph included no changes other than in 
facial features. Hence what we see in this group is prob- 
ably no more the literal truth of history than is usual in 
such cases : perhaps less than is usual. 

These matters, of course, have no bearing on the 
merits of the group as a work of art, nor have they any 
considerable interpretative importance. They may be, 
however, of some historic interest. 

Another matter of some historic interest and perhaps 
also of some interpretative importance, is mentioned by 

[200] 



NOTES 

Mr. Ball in his book. He informs us that Wendell Phillips 
was displeased with his Boston statues. He says (p. 298): 
"He [Phillips] sent me away with his exceedingly vulgar 
tirade against me and the Boston statues ringing in my 
ears." Whether or not this occurred after the Emanci- 
pation group was in place, is not certain ; but seemingly 
it did. The account which Mr. Ball gives of the occur- 
rence is inexplicit and vague — even more vague than is 
■his wont. 

Page 31 — 

I have put a query after the word "marble," for the 
reason that, although the description in the booklet, 
quoted on pages 29 and 30, says that the original was in 
marble, Mr. Ball's book indicates that it was cast in 
bronze. He says : "The first copy of this little group 
was ordered in bronze before it was finished in the clay, 

by Mr. of Boston." Of course, a marble copy may 

have been made, also. This matter is of no importance 
here, except as bearing on the question of the general 
reliability of the statements in the description quoted. 

Page 32 — 

My criticisms of Ball's group may perhaps receive 
some justification — if any be needed — by considering 
some of the interpretations which have been placed on 
similarly posed figures and groups ; for example, Cartot's 
well-known relief group on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, 
known as "The Apotheosis of Napoleon." 

It is described and pictured in Eaton's "Modern French 
Sculpture." It shows a female kneeling at Napoleon's 
feet. Over her head his hand is extended almost exactly 
as in Ball's group. The interpretation given is : "A con- 
quered city is making her submission. Napoleon extends 
his hand over her in token of clemency." [Italics mine.] 

[201] 



NOTES 

It seems that the projectors of the plan to erect a me- 
morial to Mr. Lincoln from funds contributed by Freed- 
men, had in mind a much costlier and more elaborate 
work than the one finally erected — the Ball group. 

As early as 1867, a design fcr the memorial by Miss 
Harriet Hosmer had been selected. The design called for 
a large, costly, and very elaborate composition ; nearly 
as large and elaborate as the great national memorial to 
Mr. Lincoln which was designed by Clark Mills [p. 39]. 

Efforts to raise money for both of these memorials 
were proceeding at the same time. Moreover, at the 
same time, funds were being collected for the large and 
costly monument at Mr. Lincoln's grave at Springfield. 
The colored people were called on to assist and did assist 
in all of these efforts. 

From Mr. Yeatman's remarks in the pamphlet hereto- 
fore mentioned, we learn that, of the $17,000 collected 
for the "Freedmen's Memorial" (Ball's group) in Wash- 
ington, about $12,000 came from colored soldiers. Nearly 
an equal amount was given by colored soldiers for the 
monument at Springfield. [See booklet by Edward S. 
Johnson, custodian.] Then it is probable that under the 
items, "sunday-schools, lodges, army associations, indi- 
viduals, states," etc., the colored people gave a consider- 
able amount for this monument and also for the pro- 
jected great memorial at Washington designed by Clark 
Mills. 

The Lincoln Monument at Springfield was completed 
early in the 70's. [Black Folk are not represented on it] 
The contract for Ball's group was made about that time ; 
but the efforts to raise money for the memorial at Wash- 
ington (Mills' design) were kept up for nearly or quite 
ten years longer, although only about $10,000 in all was 
raised for it. 

Even if all that was given by colored people — formerly 

[202] 



NOTES 

slave and formerly free — to all three of these projects 
could have been combined, the amount would have fallen 
far short of the estimated cost of the "Freedmen's Me- 
morial," designed by Miss Hosmer, which was given as 
$250,000. 

The "London Art Journal" for January, 1868 had an 
article describing Miss Hosmer's design, accompanied 
by a picture of the model. The article says that, with 
the exception of the monument to Frederick the Great 
at Berlin, this proposed Lincoln Monument "is the 
grandest recognition of the Art of sculpture that has 
been offered in our age." That was probably true at 
the time it was written, but Clark Mills' design which 
came out two or three years later, was larger and far 
more elaborate. 

The article described Miss Hosmer's design, in part, as 
follows : 

"The sides of the base are filled with bas-reliefs illus- 
trating the life of the President. The first symbolises 
his birth and his various occupations as a builder of log- 
cabins, flat-boatman, and farmer; the second illustrates 
his career as a lawyer, and his installation as President 
of the United States ; the third contains four memorable 
events of the late war ; while the fourth shows the closing 
scenes of his life, the assassination in the theatre, the 
funeral procession, and his burial at Springfield. The four 
tablets above these contain respectively the following in- 
scriptions : — Abraham Lincoln, Martyr — President of 
the United States — Preserver of the American Union — 
Emancipator of Four Millions of men. The circular bas- 
relief higher up shows thirty-six female figures, symbol- 
ising the union of the same number of States: each of 
these figures represents the peculiarity of that State 
whose shield occupies the medallion beneath. 

"The four colossal statues placed at the outer angles 
display the progressive stages of liberation during Lin- 
coln's administration. The negro appears, first, exposed 

[203] 



NOTES 

for sale ; secondly, laboring in a plantation ; thirdly, guid- 
ing and assisting the loyal troops; and fourthly, serving 
as a soldier of the Union. 

"In the pillared 'temple' surmounting the whole, is a 
colossal statue of Lincoln, holding in one hand the Proc- 
lamation of Emancipation, and in the other the broken 
chain of slavery. 

"The four female figures, also of colossal size, repre- 
sent Liberty bearing their crowns to the Freedmen. 

"On the architecture [architrave ? ] of the temple are 
inscribed the concluding words of the Proclamation of 
Emancipation : 'And upon this, sincerely believed to be 
an act of justice. . . .' 

"Bearing in mind that this memorial is to be called 
the 'Freedmen's Monument,' it was necessary that the 
circumstances attending the act of emancipation should 
form, as they do, the principal features of the design. 
Miss Hosmer has kept this strictly in view, and has not 
been led away. ..." 

The article said that the monument was to be executed 
in granite and bronze ; total height to be sixty feet ; to 
be placed in the grounds of the Capitol at Washington ; 
estimated cost, ^"50,000. 

Page 36 — 

"Munsey's Magazine" for April, 1915, has an article by 
Frank O. Payne under the title, "Lincoln in Bronze." 

In the article he briefly discusses Ball's "Emancipation 
groups" in Washigton and Boston, and he refers very 
briefly to Bissell's Lincoln monument in Edinburgh. With 
the shallowness and ineptitude which characterize' the 
writers for the low grade Sunday papers, rather than those 
whose writings usually appear in the magazines, he says 
that Bissell's monument "in its general conception is 
similar to the 'Emancipation' groups [by Ball J, with the 
figure of a liberated slave crouching below the statue of 
Lincoln." 

[204] 



NOTES 

Since there is shown no picture of the monument, this 
inaccurate statement can be made to "go" in that par- 
ticular article. Admitting, if we choose, that the con- 
ceptions are "similar," it clearly is not true that in Bis- 
sell's group the liberated slave is "crouching" ; and the 
fact that he is not, constitutes an important dfference in 
the groups. Hardly less important is the difference in 
the attitudes of Mr. Lincoln. But these points are dis- 
cussed in the main matter, under the respective groups. 

Payne goes still further astray while discussing another 
work ; as we shall see. 

Page 38 — 

It will be noticed that the legend at the bottom of the 
picture of the "Emancipation" tablet in the Cleveland 
monument gives the name of the freedman as Dan R. 
Field. 

I am indebted to Hon. Harry C. Smith, editor of the 
Cleveland "Gazette," for the information which follows, 
the most of which he says was taken from a newspaper 
article in the possession of the widow of Mr. Fields — 
as his name seems to be correctly spelled. 

"Daniel Romey Fields — born a slave on a Mississippi 
plantation. Freed by Lincoln's emancipation proclama- 
tion; enlisted in the regiment that was massacred at 
Fort Pillow, being one of three to escape by swimming 
to Federal gunboats in the river, 'bullets raining about 
them' as they swam ; was one of the last to leave the 
fort. He joined another regiment and remained with it 
until he came North as a servant of a Union soldier, and 
remained. He learned to read and write in the North. 
When Captain Levi T. Scofield returned to Cleveland at 
the close of the War he found Fields in the employ of his 
father. When the elder Scofield died Fields was employed 
by the Captain. 

"Captain Scofield was in charge of the building of the 

[205 J 



NOTES 

monument, which he designed. The French sculptors, on 
the suggestion of Captain Scofield, selected Fields as the 
model because 'the design for the tablet representing 
the emancipation of the slaves called for a full-blooded 
African, who might be taken as a type of his race.' They 
decided that Fields was just the man." 

The reference above to "French sculptors" would seem 
to indicate that, while Captain Scofield was the designer 
of the monument and probably of the various sculptured 
groups and panels, yet that the actual modeling was 
done by others ; although the official descriptive booklet 
lists him as "architect and sculptor," and refers to him 
in two or three places as "the sculptor." 

Frank O. Payne, in the magazine article mentioned in 
the former note, goes, as I have said, even further astray 
regarding Scofield's panel than he did regarding Bissell's 
Edinburgh group. 

There is no picture of the panel accompanying Payne's 
article, hence many readers perhaps will not know how 
contemptuously or ignorantly false is his statement con- 
cerning it, as follows : 

"The 'Emancipation' panel is an obvious imitation of 
the Ball groups of the same name. Lincoln is holding 
the broken shackles aloft with one hand, as he hands a 
rifle to the kneeling negro with the other. Whether the 
slave is begging for the rifle or the shackles one is left 
to surmise." 

Page 40 — 

Among the original score of members of the Lincoln 
Monument Association were Frederick Douglass and 
General O. O. Howard. 

Our picture indicates that it was the intention to erect 
the monument near the Capitol. A previous note has 
shown that the promoters of the "Freedmen's Memorial" 
planned to locate it also in the Capitol grounds. But 

[206] 



NOTES 

the memorial finally erected by the Freedmen [Ball's 
group] was placed in Lincoln Park, about a dozen 
squares east of the Capitol Building. 

Page 41 — 

Miss Hosmer's design was, from the standpoint of the 
Freedmen, more satisfactory, in that it gave distinct 
and conspicuous recognition to their services in assist- 
ing to secure their own freedom and in defending the 
Union. 

Page 67 — 

There are persons who perhaps will be annoyed at Mr. 
Taft's use of the word "negress." But from what has 
"been quoted and what will be quoted from his book, it 
ought to be clear that he had no intention to offend and 
no thought that he might offend. 

Whether or not "we" are justified in taking offense at 
the term, now, I will not presume to say. It is certain, 
however, that the term had its origin in disrespect or 
lack of respect, just as probably did the terms "Jewess," 
"Squaw," and other terms that could be named. 

Perhaps I may say here as well as anywhere, that in 
the quoted passages, my endeavor has been to follow the 
originals literally, regardless of my own preferences and 
views. 

Page 72 — 

My statement that there are but three war monuments 
which show a Black Defender, was made while having in 
mind merely the late Civil War. Certainly I should have 
considered the tablet in old Fort Griswold, described in 
the appendix. The Attucks Monument also might have 
been considered. 



[207] 



NOTES 

Page 81 — 

It will be observed that, of the several men in Mao 
Monnies' Naval group, only one besides the Negro is 
naked above the waist. 

Page 85 — 

It is a rather singular thing that Mr. Vedder's cynical, 
half -sneering Sibyl should have been suggested by a. 
"look of patient endurance and resignation" ; and an 
interesting subject for study would be the evolution of 
this almost vindictive-looking personage from "a soul 
patiently biding its time" — the latter characterization 
admittedly, now, as ever, fitting the "blameless Ethiopi- 
ans," as Homer designated them. 

If this personage, as here portrayed, truly represents 
the "mood" in which Mr. Vedder found himself when 
conceiving the Sibyl, it was probably, for him, an ex- 
ceptional and fleeting one ; for the mood which the Sibyl 
appears to express is not, after all, "If you don't buy 
now"; but rather, "Since you would not buy — you are 
paying more." In short, it is a mood componnded of 
sourness, amused contemptuousness, • and almost gloat- 
ing triumph. But everyone who knows Mr. Vedder 
personally, will testify that he is one of the most gener- 
ous and genial of "good-fellows." 

Yet so difficult is the road to success in the higher 
callings — difficult, not so much from what must be 
learned and accomplished, as from what must be en- 
dured, and must be dodged — that we must wonder how 
anyone — least of all, an artist — can "succeed" and still 
remain "sweet." 

Page 97 — 

Referring to French's "Africa" before the New York 
Custom House, the "International Studio" for July, 1905- 

[208] 



NOTES 

had the following : . 

"Africa rests one elbow on the head of a lion and the 
other on a sphinx, and seems to slumber. She has the 
lips and chin of a negro, with an Egyptian cast to the 
rest of the features. Behind the sphinx is a figure en- 
tirely covered with drapery, save for the toes of one foot 
and the eyes under the shadow of the cloak, giving, with 
the loose hanging, slightly incurved hands, drooping head 
and closed eyes [of the main figure], an added suggestion 
of sleep." 

The full passage relating to the group in the article 
in the "Independent" reads as follows : 

"In marked contrast to the alert attitude of America 
is the sleeping figure of Africa. Like the others, this 
figure is not an ethnological portrait, but has a sug- 
gestion of the negro in the features, attitude, and the 
modeling the of the hands and feet. 

"The reclining figure of the dark continent is supported 
on the one side by the ancient and weather-worn Sphinx, 
and on the other by a lion. In the background we glimpse 
a mysterious figure suggesting the unknown possibilities 
of Africa." 

I cannot refrain from a short discussion of a state- 
ment in the passage just quoted from the "Independent" 
which makes reference to "a suggestion of the negro in 
the features, attitude, and in the modeling of the hands 
and feet" ; and to DeKay's reference [p. 98] to "a negro 
type or touch in features and form." 

I have recently had some correspondence with artists 
who have endeavored to justify the claims implied by 
the words which I have italicized ; implied at least by the 
word "form." 

Passing by, for the moment, the claim of a distinctive 
Negro "form," I will say that I am still convinced that 
the physical peculiarities relating to hands and feet at 
which the writer seems to be hinting — so far as they 

[209] 



NOTES 

have not been proven to be unreal — are not at all com- 
mon to Negroes nor characteristic of them ; and the at- 
tribution of these abnormalities to Negroes as a race is 
a mere conventionality which had its origin in caricature 
and detraction, and is still generally employed for these 
purposes — albeit, sometimes insidiously. 

I do not wish to appear dogmatic, but do nevertheless 
insist that these conventionally attributed peculiarities 
have about the same foundation in fact as the half-jests 
regarding the big feet of Chicago girls and the flat feet 
of Englishmen. 

DeKay's vague reference to a Negro "form," is not so 
readily combated ; for, I can only surmise what he has 
in mind, since facial features seem to be excluded. 

None of the defenders of the above-indicated claims 
with whom I have corresponded has specified anything as 
to this alleged distinctive form. It is likely, however, that 
if pressed, they would seek to take refuge behind one or 
more of the physical peculiarities (physical, or somatic, 
"characters," ethnologists call them) which "it is said" 
are distinctive to Negroes ; which characters, so far as I 
have seen them mentioned, have a basis of fact so very 
uncertain — those which have not broken down altogeth- 
er — that it would be not only presumption but folly to 
base on them anything intended to be serious and per- 
manent. Moreover, if we concede that the variations put 
forward as race characters really are such, they are ad- 
mittedly so "trifling" that sculpture could not depict 
them as determining "characters" without more or less, 
exaggeration. Yet, under restrictions, the employment 
of these fugitive "characters" would be legitimate ; and 
even their exaggeration might be permissible if, and 
whenever, it could be done without casting a sinister 
shadow. 

Ethnologists tell us that characteristic racial differ- 

[210] 



NOTES 

ences in physical forms (except as to facial features) are 
very slight, elusive, and questionable. Deniker and 
others mention "very trifling" somatic differences that 
possibly may be characteristic of race. Seemingly, some 
of these alleged characters are enumerated and discussed 
because somebody has asserted or suggested them ; just 
as Deniker thought it worth while, as late as 1900, to re- 
fute the claim that there are now races, or at least tribes, 
of men with tails. Of course, men with tails had been 
seen by credible witnesses ; and Deniker shows a picture 
of one — from a photograph. But close inspection dem- 
onstrated that the excellently simulated caudal append- 
age was merely a part of the bearer's costume. 

According to what I have read and have seen here and 
there, the most exploited of these alleged Negro somatic 
characters or "traits" — excluding plain caricature — 
"have been long limbs, long heels, and certain skull for- 
mations. 

As for the alleged long limbs (arms), Deniker (French) 
discusses the matter at some length in his book, "Races 
of Man," published in 1900. He finally says (page 91) : 

"In spite of the quantity of material accumulated (as to 
the proportions of the body), we have not been able up 
to the present to make any use of the differences which 
these proportions exhibit according to race. The reason 
is that these differences are very trifling." 

Dr. D. G. Brinton (American), after enumerating the 
real physical race characteristics — color of the skin, the 
hair, and the facial features — virtually throws out of 
-court the claim as to shape of the skull. In Johnson's 
Cyclopedia, in the article on "Man," he says : 

"Much attention has been paid to the shape of the 
skull as an ethnic criterion, but it must be said with lit- 
tle positive results." 

[2U] 



NOTES 

The eminent Doctor, whose prejudice against Negroes 
was strong almost to virulence, was at that time (1896) 
still clinging rather dubiously to some other vaguely- 
stated physical race-traits ; although, as we shall see, he 
had already abandoned one of the most strongly pressed 
of the alleged distinctive Negro somatic characters. 

As to the feet, there has been, as I have said, a claim 
that the Negro has an abnormally long heel, or rather, 
heel-bone. None of the claims which have been men- 
tioned, nor any other, has been more strongly pressed or 
persistently exploited than this one. Very probably, the 
writer in the "Independent" had it in mind when making 
his statement. 

But Doctor Brinton, who most certainly would have 
stuck to this particular claim if he could, abandoned it 
as early as 1890, in his book, "Races and Peoples," which 
came out that year. That was several years before the 
publication of the cyclopedia article by him, from which 
I quoted above, in which article this claim was not even 
mentioned. In the book, just named, he says (p. 28) : 

"The heel bone is currently believed to be longer and 
project further backward in the negro than in the white 
man." 

But measurements, he said, had disproved the claim, 
and observation showed that — 

"The lengthening is apparent only, and is due to the 
•mallness of the calf and the slenderness of the main 
tendon, immediately above the heel." 

The eminent English authority, Professor E. B. Tylor, 
in the 11th edition (1910) of the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
discredits substantially all that was left of the alleged 
distinguishing race physical characters which, for rea- 
sons that will be indicated, have had most currency. Ig- 
noring all the claims except those relating to proportions 
of the limbs, he says (under "Anthropology") : 

[212] 



NOTES 

"Proportions of the limbs compared with the trunk, 
have been claimed as constituting peculiarities of the 
African and American races ; and other anatomical points, 
such as conformation of the pelvis, have a specialty. But 
inferences of this class have hardly attained to sufficient 
certainty and generality to be set down in the form of 
rules." 

And so we might go on to refute the claims of other 
less-stressed characters, if it were worth while. 

But the alleged abnormalities which I have particu- 
larly discussed are the ones that have been put forward 
to justify the caricature and detraction which have been 
the chief reasons for their exploitation if not for their 
supposed discovery. 

It is, of course, highly improbable that many of those 
who put forward these claims explicitly or inferentially, 
know or have sought to determine the main basis or the 
origin of these attributions. Without carrying the matter 
to too great a length, it may suffice here to point out 
that all of the alleged physical peculiarities which are 
exploited, are more or less simian [ape-like,] especially 
so, are the alleged long limbs and long heel-bones. 

And this fact becomes the more significant when it is 
remembered that there are other alleged somatic peculi- 
arities which have at least as good claims to be regarded 
as race characters for the Negro, which are seldom men- 
tioned and never exploited. Two or three of these have 
already been adverted to ; the one best grounded perhaps 
being small leg-calves. 

So far we have touched on only the alleged race traits 
which are exteriorly anatomical and hence, if sufficiently 
marked, might be available for the sculptor. The flimsi- 
ness if not the falsity of the claims has been shown ; and 
what is perhaps as important — even if foreign to our 
stated subject, — the origin and purpose of the most ex- 

[213] 



NOTES 

ploited of the ascriptions have been indicated. If the. 
occasion permitted to consider other real and probable . 
race characters, it would be seen that, for the Negro, the 
so-called "simian" traits of an anatomical character, not 
only are un-confirmed by other real and probable traits,. 
but are actually negatived. 

Characteristic racial attitudes and "expressions," or 
ways of doing things — temperaments and habits, if you 
choose — may be readily conceded, and these are legiti- 
mate "traits" for portrayal, within proper limits. 

But it is extremely doubtful whether Mr. French, in 
the group under consideration, had in mind portraying 
any distinctive racial attitudes, or that he had in mind 
"suggesting" the Negro "by the modeling of the hands 
and feet." And even if he had the latter in mind, he was 
either knowingly following conventions or he was the 
victim of once-common, and therefore perhaps excusable, 
errors. 

But since Mr. DeKay has expressed his fears that some 
persons may complain because the Negro "form" — what- 
ever it be — is lacking in the main figure in the group, it 
is evident that he, too, thinks that the sculptor was not 
making any such "suggestions" as the writer in the 
"Independent" imagines, or pretends, that he sees. 

Page 99 — 

Inasmuch as I have criticised the representation of 
Africa by "a long-haired, more or less sharp-featured 
personage such as we see here" — in French's group — 
perhaps it would be fair, and interesting also, to quote a 
defense of the "type" depicted in the group, which de- 
fense came to me in a letter from a person who may be 
regarded as expressing the sculptor's views. The letter 
says : 

"It is usual to depict the negro with a snub nose and 

[214] 



NOTES 

exaggerated fullness of lips, in fact the lowest type of 
negro that exists. As a matter of fact there is a type 
of negro which probably represents some section of 
Africa in which the nose is aquiline and the whole cast 
of features handsome and dignified according to our 
Caucasian ideas. This does not at all mean that this 
type has not the fullness of form by which the African 
is distinguished, but that by the laws of composition the 
face is developed in a natural sequence that stands for 
beauty according to our European art standards." 

As for the long hair, the writer says that the sculptor 
could "retreat into the safe ground" that he is "depicting 
an Egyptian and so even defend the long hair." 

He also adds that, as a matter of fact, "artists are a 
little careless of their anthropology and take some 
licenses for artistic effect." 

Page 111 — 

The "Prudence Grand all Incident" is sketched in John 
W. Cromwell's book, "The Negro in American History," 
(page 254) as follows: 

"Prudence Crandall in 1833 admitted a colored girl as 
a student to her Girls' Boarding School at Canterbury, 
Conn. Notwithstanding opposition by whites to her 
retention Miss Crandall refused to exclude her, and on 
the withdrawal of white patronage she defiantly opened 
a school for colored girls. This intensified opposition 
and caused the enactment of a law making such a school 
illegal under penalty of fine and imprisonment. Miss 
Crandall was arrested, tried, convicted and sentenced. 
She refused to pay the fine or permit friends to do so. 
She was thrust into jail, but was subsequently released." 

Page 117 — 

The following additional stanzas from O'Reilly's poem 
on Crispus Attucks, may perhaps be regarded as perti- 
nent to our subject. 

[215] 



NOTES 

O planter of seed in thought and deed ! has the year of 

right revolved, 
And brought the Negro patriot's cause with its problem 

to be solved? 
His blood streamed first at the building, and through all 

the century's years, 
Our growth of story and fame of glory are mixed with 

his blood and tears. 

He lived with men like a soul condemned — derided, 

defamed and mute; 
Debased to the brutal level, and instructed to be a 

brute. 
His virture was shorn of benefit, his industry of 

reward : 
His love ! — men, it were mercy to have cut affection's 

cord ! 
Through the night of his woe, no pity, save that of a 

fellow slave ! 
For the wage of his priceless labor, the scourging block 

and the grave. 

And now is the tree to blossom? Is the bowl of agony 

filled? 
Shall the price be paid and the honor said and the word 

of outrage stilled ? 
And we who have toiled for freedom's law, have we 

sought for freedom's soul ? 
Have we learned at last that human right is not a part 

but the whole ? 
That nothing is told while the clinging sin remains in 

part unconfessed ? 
That the health of the nation is periled if one man is 

oppressed ? 



[216] 



NOTES 

Has he learned — this slave from the rice-swamps, whose 

children were sold — has he, 
With broken chains on his limbs, and the cry in his 

blood, "I am free ! " 
Has he learned through affliction's teaching what our 

Crispus Attucks knew — 
When right is stricken, the white and black are counted 

as one, not two ? 

Has he learned that his century of grief was worth a 

thousand years 
In blending his life and blood with ours, and that all his 

toils and tears 
Were heaped and poured on him suddenly, to give him 

a right to stand 
From the gloom of African forests, in the blaze of the 

freest land ? 
That his hundred years have earned for him a place in 

the human van 
Which others have fought for and thought for since the 

world of wrong began ? 

For this, shall his vengeance change to love, and his 

retribution burn, 
Defending the right, the weak, the poor, when each shall 

have his turn ; 
For this, shall he set his woeful past afloat on the stream 

of night ; 
For this, he forgets as we all forget when darkness turns 

to light ; 
For this he forgives as we all forgive when wrong has 

changed to right. 

Page 118 — 

Miss E. D. Pope of the editorial staff of the "Confeder- 
ate Veteran" (Nashville), writes: 

[217] 



NOTES 

"So far as we are able to recall, the monument to the 
faithful slaves erected at Fort Mill, S. C, is the only one 
that has been erected, but in the last year or so there 
has been a movement in our Confederate organizations 
to recognize the faithfulness of the Southern Slaves by 
other monuments. The Arkansas Division, United Con- 
federate Veterans, during 1915 passed a resolution to 
that effect, and a fund has already been started in that 
State." 

She also kindly sent a copy of the issue of the "Veter- 
an" for October, 1914, in which the following news note 
appeared : 

"The Omer R. Weaver Camp, of Little Rock, Ark., has 
started a movement to erect a memorial in the capital 
city of the State in recognition of the faithful service of 
the slaves who guarded the families and property of 
their masters who were at the front fighting for the 
Confederacy. A resolution on the subject was intro- 
duced by Jonathan Kellogg, Adjutant General of the 
State Division, and adopted by the Camp, and the matter 
will be brought before the State Reunion, which meets 
in Little Rock, November 3-5. 

"The United Daughters of the Confederacy Convention 
at Jacksonville last May adopted resolutions recommend- 
ing that each State take proper steps toward the erection 
of a granite shaft or other permanent memorial that will 
commemorate the loyalty of the slaves of the South 
during the war of the sixties." 

In the same issue of the "Veteran," Mr. Hugh Barclay 
of Mobile, Ala., writes a strong appeal for a memorial 
which shall represent the Southland as a whole. His 
article says, in part : 

"Now seems to be a monumental era in our land and 
a fitting time to raise a monument to the faithful slaves 
who blessed and fortified our homes during that time of 
despair and gloom with their loyal labor and protection." 

[218] 



NOTES 

It may be of interest to note that at least one memo- 
rial to faithful slaves has been erected in the North — at 
Barrington, R. I. 

Mr. Howard M. Chapin, Librarian of the Rhode Island 
Historical Society, kindly sends me the following news 
note from the Bristol (R. I.) "Phoenix" of June 16, 1903. 

"A memorial monument, probably the first of its char- 
acter erected in this country, was dedicated at Barring- 
ton Sunday afternoon in memory of the negro slaves of 
Barrington and their descendants in the presence of a 
large number of people, who came from all parts of the 
county, Providence and other places. 

"The monument is a large boulder and on the front is 
a bronze tablet bearing the following inscription : 

In Memory of 
The Negro Slaves and their Descendants 
Who Faithfully Served 
Barrington Families. 
Erected A. D. 1903. 

"The exercises took place at 3 : 30 in the afternoon 
at Prince's Hill cemetery where the monument was 
erected." 

Page 127 — 

Regarding the presence of the "freed slave" in the 
Indianapolis group — the statement of the supposition 
which I ventured, is given as it was originally set down 
and spoken ; but information has since come to hand 
which indicates that the figure of the recumbent slave 
was a substitution for a wounded Confederate soldier 
who, in the original design by Mr. Schmitz, was shown 
lying in the foreground while a Union soldier ministered 
to him. [Report of the Commissioners, 1891-92.] 

Page 128 — 

My feeling that the representation accorded the Black 

[219] 



NOTES 

Man on the Indianapolis military monument is inade- 
quate and inconsiderate if not actually supercilious, tends 
to increase rather than to diminish. Here I shall borrow 
a statement from a recent book which was written by a 
man who cannot be held to be biased in favor of Black 
Folk; indeed, his book as a whole has been roundly — . 
and I think rightly — condemned as inimical to them. 
Yet he is moved to say — 

"And what of the Negro himself ? As he had respond- 
ed with ready patriotism to his country's call in the War 
for American Independence, so likewise did he respond 
again in the War for the Preservation of the Union. His 
part in the establishment of the nation had been substan- 
tial. His part in saving the nation from being rent in 
twain was vital. For, in view of the military crisis which 
had arisen at the time when emancipation was pro- 
claimed, it must be regarded as in all probability the 
fact, that without the one hundred and eighty thousand 
Negro volunteers who came to the rescue, the Union 
forces could not have won the victory. Union defeat 
would have meant slavery's indefinite continuance. 
Thus, while by his part in the Revolution the Negro had 
contributed to his consequent emancipation throughout 
the North, by his part in the Civil War he himself proved 
the decisive factor in the establishment of his freedom 
throughout the nation." [Italics mine.] 

The statement just quoted is from John Daniels' book, 
"In Freedom's Birthplace" (page 80). The book deals 
with Boston's people of color — their past history and 
present condition. The statement follows a description 
of the Shaw Monument, and is in effect an amplification 
of the inscription thereon. 

Page 133 — 

It is perhaps not worth while to discuss Strahan's as- 
sertion regarding "these primitive intelligences" and the 
manner in which they are affected by "love" ; it will per- 

[220] 



NOTES 

haps suffice for our purpose to repeat and amplify my 
statement, that his innuendo regarding the torturing 
pangs of "bootless passion" in this case, is gratuitous, 
and is wholly unjustified by the story in the opera as 
well as by Signor Caroni's statue. 

"Selika" is the heroine of the five-act opera, L'Africaine 
— music by Myerbeer, words by Scribe (both French), 
She is represented as the queen of an island off the 
African coast who was carried away captive by Vasco 
de Gama, the Portuguese navigator, who was the first 
to reach India from Europe by sailing around the Cape 
of Good Hope. 

Selika, although virtually a slave, falls in love with her 
captor. But he loves Inez, a maiden of his own nation. 
Inez, however, is induced to marry the Admiral of the 
Fleet, Vasco's superior in rank. Notwithstanding his 
disappointment, he presents Selika and a male captive, 
Nelusko, to Inez as a bridal gift. 

After a series of incidents which included the imprison- 
ment of Vasco — during which imprisonment Selika de- 
votedly but chastely ministered to him, — we find the 
Admiral in command of a ship seeking to reach India by 
Vasco's route ; the latter following in another ship. See- 
ing the Admiral's ship approaching the island from 
which Selika was carried away, Vasco hastened to warn 
the Admiral. Not only was his warning unheeded, but 
he was placed in irons on the Admiral's ship. The ship 
was attacked by the people of the island and all on 
board, including the Admiral, were killed or captured. 
Selika — queen now, again — secures Vasco's freedom. 
He is pleased with the land and the people, and, recipro- 
cating Selika's affection, he decides to make his home 
there — as her consort. But later, on seeing Inez about 
to be executed with the other captives, his old affection 
for her gets the better of him, and he induces Selika to 

[221] 



NOTES 

save her also. Selika soon divines the true situation and 
magnanimously permits Vasco and Inez to be united; 
and after a time she contrives to have them escape 
together. 

The sketch from which I have gleaned and refreshed 
my memory concludes thus : 

"She [Selika] directs Nelusko to escort them to a ves- 
sel and they set sail for Portugal. When she knows that 
they are safe on board, Selika lies down beneath the 
Manzaniilo tree, having eaten of its poisonous flowers, 
and expires, attended by faithful Nelusco." [See "Opera 
Goer's Guide," by Leo Melitz; English translation.] 

Page 168 — 

The words "up to that time," in the first paragraph, 
mean, up to the time Saint-Gaudens began working on, 
or designing, the Shaw Monument, about 1885 — twenty 
years after the War closed. 

Page 172 — 

The inscription on the reverse of the Shaw Monument 
was composed by President Eliot of Harvard Uuiversity. 
It reads as follows : 

To the Fifty-fourth of Massachusetts 

Regiment Infantry 

The White Officers 
taking life and honor in their hands, cast in their 
lot with men of a despised race unproved in war 
and risked death as inciters of servile insurrec- 
tion if taken prisoners, besides encountering all 
the common perils of camp march and battle. 

The Black Rank and File 
volunteered when disaster clouded the Union 
cause, served without pay for eighteen months 
till given that of white troops, faced threatened 

[222| 



NOTES 

enslavement if captured, were brave in action, 

patient under heavy and dangerous labors, and 

cheerful amid hardships and privations. 

Together 
they gave to the nation and the world undying 
proof that Americans of African descent possess 
the pride courage and devotion of the patriot 
soldier, one hundred and eighty thousand such 
Americans enlisted under the Union Flag in 

MDCCCLXIII - MDCCCLXV 

The following is a brief extract from the long interpre- 
tation and discussion of this monument by William H. 
Downes, in his book already mentioned (on page 165). 

"That this noble, beautiful epic work is erected to com- 
memorate the modest but worthy part taken in the war 
for the Union by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw and the 
officers and men of the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Regi- 
ment, is accurate as far as it goes, but this is not all. 
The true instinct of the artist has shaped every line in 
his bronze to a typical and representative meaning, so 
that instead of being a memorial of one hero and his 
regiment alone, it assumes a national scope and signifi- 
cance, and becomes in a sense a monument to all like 
heroes and all kindred regiments. . . . This could be done 
only because Shaw was a national type of the American 
hero, and his men were types of the unpretentious, self- 
sacrificing bravery and devotion of the colored volun- 
teers." 

Concerning this monument, Charles C, Caffin says 
["American Masters of Sculpture," page 12] : 

"Behind this group loom the tremendous issues of the 
war ; they were present to the imagination of the sculp- 
tor and he has suggested them to ours. Hence the work 
is big with fatefulness, with a reference reaching far be- 
yond the personages represented to the fate of a nation 

[223] 



NOTES 

trembling in the balance. Ah ! it is a great gift, this 
power to touch upon the fundamental, the essentially 
vital aspect of a matter, and by means so simple and of 
common knowledge. As he worked upon the memorial 
it would seem that Saint-Gaudens distrusted somewhat 
his possession of this faculty, for to increase the idealiza- 
tion he has introduced a figure of Victory floating above 
the head of the leader. It was not necessary and is 
scarcely in accord with the rest of the composition, 
introducing into the energy and concentration of the 
whole a somewhat quavering note. Yet, to judge by my 
own experience, the sense of jar yields to indifference : 
one loses consciousness of this figure in the grandeur and 
elevation of the whole. But, if this is the experience of 
others, it tends to prove how unnecessary was its intro- 
duction ; and, further, one is inclined to resent it as par- 
taking too much of the obviousness which would occur 
to a smaller sculptor." 

Mr. Caffin's view that the figure of the floating 
"Victory" is not necessary and really introduces a jarring 
note, is shared by other writers ; but most writers ap- 
prove its presence. Personally, it seems to me that his 
criticism is wholly just. Perhaps, however, it is because 
this panel has for me a special, almost personal, appeal, 
that this figure seems to be superfluous. It can scarcely 
be held that it contributes anything to the grandeur and 
nobility of the work as whole. Yet I am ready to con- 
cede that for many persons, perhaps, this figure — which 
is sometimes called the "Death Angel" — may be the 
starting point of the appealing pathos and elevated 
melancholy which after a time appear to permeate and 
suffuse the entire composition, completely purging it of 
every suggestion of bravado and vain-glory. Without 
this figure, perhaps our admiration would not be less ; 
but it may be that there would be a partial loss of that 
wonderful power — of which Mr. Taft speaks — "to* 
bring dimness to the eyes and a grip to the heart." 

[224] 



POSTSCRIPT 

Through the courtesy of Mr. George W. 
Forbes of the Public Library of Boston, I am 
able to show a picture of Edmonia Lewis' 
"Freedwoman." (No. 5) 

It turns out that the work is a group — not 
a single figure, as its usual designation would 
imply. The proper name for the work would 
seem to be "Freedom," which is, I think, the 
designation used by Mr. Forbes; or, perhaps, 
"Forever Free," which is the inscription on 
the base. 

The group is now in the possession of the 
family of Mr. George Glover of Boston. 

Unfortunately, the photograph from which 
our half-tone plate was made is a poor one, 
and almost certainly fails to do the group jus- 
tice. However, enough is disclosed to justify 
the interpretation already cited, to the effect, 
that the Freedwoman was overcome by a 
conflict of emotions. 

Further interpretation is perhaps unneces- 
sary; but I take the liberty to quote, from a 
letter, a remark by Mrs. Fuller — to whom I 
sent a copy of the picture. She said: "The 
man accepts it (freedom) as a glorious victory, 
while the woman looks upon it as a precious 
gift." 

[225] 



POSTSCRIPT 

The picture also shows that, as to physical 
features, Miss Lewis, in common with others 
who preceded her and others who followed 
her, seemed to feel called upon to "favor" the 
woman in the group as much as permissible ; 
though she dealt frankly enough, in that re- 
spect, with the man. 

My own opinion concerning this practice 
of "toning" has already been indicated. It 
need not be repeated or dwelt upon here, ex- 
cept to say that I am willing to admit — if 
any choose to claim — that there may have 
been some justification for such a procedure 
at that time, before fifty years of unexampled 
accomplishment had proven that what Black 
Folk really need, and should strive for, is not 
the Caucasian's physical features but the 
Caucasian's opportunity. 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Accessories make for common- 

placeness, 70, 88 
Affection, basis of genius, 141 
Africa (Ethiopia), statue, by Anne 

Whitney, 137 (note) 
Africa, figure on door-frame at the 

National Capitol, 87-92, 94 
Africa, group, New York City, by 

Daniel C.French, 92-102, 104, 208, 

209, 214 
African features, "toaed down" or 

lack'g, 8, 94, 140; emphasiz'd, 17, 

37 see also Caucasian features 
African form, alleged, 209 
African type, 6-9, 15-17, 24, 88, 98, 

214 
Alexander, Archer, 199 
Allegory in group, 58, 62 
Amazonian form, 93 
A. M. E. Review alluded to, xvii 
American Governm't see United 

States Government 
A. H. E. Zion Church, 107 
Anderson, Rev. Joseph, cited, 110 
Andrew, Governor, cited, 167 
Angel, Death, 54, 224 
Angel of Peace, 126 
Anti-slav'ry document in marble, 3 
Arc de Triomphe, Paris, 122, 201 
Army, The, group on mil'y monu- 
ment, Brooklyn, 75, 122 
Art, its province, 48, 49; it must be 

considerate, 104; requisites, 100 
Art, The higher, its method, 51; its 

message, 66; teach'g noble truth, 

9.114 



Art for art's sake, xviii, 157 
Art Journal, London, cited, 208 
Art works which show Black Folk 
owned by U. S. Gov't see 

United States Government 
Art, American, pays high compli- 
ment to Black Folk, ill; Shaw 
Monument, the highest expres- 
sion of, 171 
Athenasum, London, cited, 7 
Attucks Monum't, Boston, 114-117 
Attucks, O'Reilly's poem on, cited, 

78, 116, 215 
Auburn, N. Y„ Harriet Tubman 

tablet in, 102 
Aversion of races, the alleged, 118 
"Awake put on thy strength," 188 



Bacchante, statue, 73 

Ball, Thomas, sculptor Emancipa- 
tion group in Washington and 
Boston; which see; his works 
condemned by Phillips, 801 

Baltimore, one sculptor in, 189 

Barclay, Hugh, cited, 218 

Barrington, R. I., monument to 
faithful slaves at, 219 

Barry, John D., cited, 178 (note) 

Beecher Monument, Brooklyn, by 
J. Q. A. Ward, 66-71 

Beecher, Henry Ward, in a Rogers 
group, 147 

Bellona (goddess of war), 76, 188. 
184. 185 



[229] 



INDEX 



Bible, The Holy, cited, 94, 105, 128 

Bissell, George E., sculptor Eman- 
cipation group, Edinburgh, and 
Democracy of Childhood, group, 
Waterbury, Conn.; see each 

Black Defenders see Negro De- 
fenders 

Black Folk, in sculpture owned by 
U. S. Gov't, 94; in American 
sculpture, the earliest and very 
recent, 87, 175 

Black Regiment, memorial for; see 
Shaw Monument 

"Blood of the people" (O'Reilly), 
117 

Boston: Attucks Monument, Shaw 
Monument, and Ball's Emanci- 
pation group, in: see each 

Bowerman, Geo.F., assists author, 
xxii 

Brinton, D. G., cited, 211, 212 

Brooklyn: Beecher Monum'nt, and 
Naval group on military monu- 
ment, in; see each 

Browning, Mrs., sonnet on the 
Greek Slave, 2; poem, "Pan is 
dead," cited, 101 

Bruce's book cited, 134 

Bullard, Laura Curtis, 21 (note) 

Bumstead, Rev. Horace, assists 
author, xxii 

Bunker Hill Monument, story of 
tourist at, 50 



Caffin, Chas. C, cited, as to: the 
Freedman, 14; the Beecher Mon., 
70; the Shaw Mon., 223; he ob- 
jects to figure of Victory on the 
latter, 224 

Calder, A. Stirling, sculptor fig- 
ures, Hopes of the Future, etc., 
at Panama-Pacific Expo., 175 

Camp Fire, The, a Rogers group, 
150 



Capitol, The National — Libertv, 
statue on dome of; Africa, figure 
on door-frame of; Battle of Lake 
Erie, picture in; see each 

Carlyle, cited, 161 

Caroni, sculpt'r statue L'Africaine, 
which see 

Caucasian features, in various fig- 
ures criticised, 8, 86, 95; suppos'd 
preference of colored people for, 
95, 100, 226 

Centennial, The, Black Folk in the 
Sculpture at, 132-136 

Chapin, Howard M., assists the 
author, 219 

Civil War, stimulated art, 5 

Clark, William, describes: Story's 
Sibyl, 6; Miss Lewis' Freedwo- 
man, 21 

Clement and Hutton's book in er- 
ror, 197 

Cleopatra, statue, 5 

Cleveland: Military Monument, 
Emancipation panel in, and Mor- 
tar Practice group on; see each 

Colored people, their contributions 
to Lincoln Memorials, 202 See 
also Black Folk and Negroes 

Colored persons, proposed monu- 
ments for, 187 

Colored Women's Clubs, should 
secure copy of Libyan Sibyl, 12; 
erect monument for Harriet Tub- 
man, 187 

Color-Sergeant, The Negro, at 
Port Hudson, 38 

Confederate soldier, 219 

Confederate Veteran, The, cited, 
218 

Congressional Library (b'ld'g), 188 

Conklin, Julia S., cited, 124, 126 

Continents, The four, figures of, at 
Nat. Capitol, 87; groups of, in 
New York City, 92; Africa, the 
Dinah among, 93 



[230] 



INDEX 



Coppin, Fanny Jackson, 187 
Copy, what the word means in 

sculpture, 195 

Cox, Kenyon, cited, 89; discusses: 
representing the Emancipation, 
46-49; technical dexterity, 61; 
Millet's picture, the Sower, 155 

Crandall, Prudence, 111, 215 

Crawford, Thos., sculptor statue 
Liberty on Nat. Cap'l; see Lib'ty 

Cromwell, John W., cited, as to : 
bust of Douglass, 184; Sojourner 
Truth, 196; Douglass' criticism 
of Bail's Emancipation group, 
199; the Prudence Crandall inci- 
dent, 215; assists author, xxi 

Cromwell, Oliver, Negro Revolu- 
tionary soldier, 187 

Cumasan Sibyl, painting and bust 
by Elihu Vedder, 82-87, 208 

Cynicism, in Vedder's Sibyl, 85, 208 



Daniels, John, cited. 220 

Dargan, Olive T., assists author, 
139 

Daughter of the Sun, 92 

Davis, Harriet Tubman See 

Tubman, Harriet 

Davis, Jefferson, objects to Liberty 
Cap, 4; mentioned, 90, 91 (note) 

Death Angel, 54, 224 

Defenders, Black See Negro De- 
fenders 

Democracy of Childhood, (sug- 
gested name for) group by Geo. 
E. Bissell, on miltary monument 
Waterbury, Conn., 109-114 

Deniker, cited, 21 1 

Detroit, colored people of, 198; 
Emancipation, figure on military 
monument in, which see 

Diana, statue, 73 

Dinah, The, among the continents, 
93 



Douglass, Maj. Chas. R., 107 
Douglass, Frederick, his monu- 
ment at Rochester, 106-108; bust 
of, 184; not pleased with Ball's 
group, 198; alluded to, 148. 206 
Downes, W. H., cited, 165, 171, 223 
Drawing Rations see Taking the 
Oath 



Earle. Helen L., cited, 24, 143 

Eaton, cited, 201 

Edgerton, Fred'k Wm., describes 
relief at Fort Griswold, 186 

Edinburgh, Scotland, Emancipa'n 
group in, by Bissell, which see 

Edwards, Sidney W., sculptor of 
Douglass Monument, 107 

Egyptian hood and crest, 91 

Elaboration see Over-Elaboration 

Eliot, President of Harvard Uni- 
versity, cited, 222 

Elliott, Capt. Sam'l, erected monu- 
ment to faithful slaves at Fort 
Mill, S. C, 118 

Emancipation, figures by Malfatti 
and Pezzicar, at the Centennial, 
133, 134 

Emancipation, figure, on military 
monument, Detroit, by Rand'lph 
Rogers, 24-26. 44 

Emancipation, group, Edinburgh, 
by Geo. E. Bissell, 32-36, 45; erro- 
neously described by Payne, 
204 See also his Waterbury 
group, 109-114 

Emancipation, group, in Washing- 
ton (replica in Boston), by Thos. 
Ball, 26-32; compared to the con- 
ceptions of others, 33, 42, 44; un- 
pleasing to Fred'k Douglass, 198; 
cost of, 199; original of slave in, 
199, 200; alluded to, 201, 204, 207 

Emancipation, group, by Meta V. 
Warrick Fuller, 55-66 



[231] 



INDEX 



Emancipation, groups and figures, 
summary and discussion of, 43- 
49; how generally conceived and 
express'd in art, 135; difficulty of 
representing, 46 ff; no adequate 
representation of, prior to 1913, 
46; justified by the Negro's mili- 
tary sendees, 165, 220 

Emancipation, proposed moum'ts 
to commemorate; see Lincoln 
Memorials, proposed 

Emancipation, panel in base of 
military monument, Cleveland, 
by Levi T. Scofield, 37-39; the 
freedman in, 205; Payne de- 
scribes falsely, 206; mentioned, 
45, 45 

Emancipation, The Glory of, 
name suggested for group, 113 

Emancipation Exposition in New 
York, 1913, Mrs. Fuller's group 
at, 56 

Emerson, cited, as to; inconsist- 
ency, 105; genius, 141; the poet, 
170: quoted, 63, 97, 172 

Emotions, Conflict of, in Miss 
Lewis' Freedwoman, 21, 225 

Epic of Freedom, suggested by 
the Rogers groups, 158, 163 

Epic of the soil, Millet's, 157 

Ethiopia Asleep; see Africa, group 
by French 

Ethiopia (Africa), statue by Anne 
Whitney, 136-141 

Ethiopia Awakening, name sug- 
gested for Miss Whitney's 
statue, 140 

Euripides, his epitaph, 108 

Expediency not based on prefer- 
ence, 100 



Faithful Slaves Monuments, 117- 

120, 218, 219 
Farragut, Admiral, 81 



Fate, Fingers of, in Mrs. Fuller's 
group, 57 

Features (facial), the "toning" of, 
criticised; see African features 

Figurative representation required 
for themes, 51 ff 

Fingers of Fate, in Mrs. Fuller's 
group, 57 

Finish, in sculpture— Rodin and 
Cox cited concerning, 60 ff 

First Fruits of Reconstruction, 
The, name suggested for a 
Rogers group, 163 

Forbes, Geo. W., cited, as to the 
Peter Salem Memorial, 184; as to 
Negro workman completing the 
statue of Liberty, 194; assists 
author, 225 

Ford, Gabriel, mentioned on tab- 
let in Richmond, Va., 185 

Forever Free, inscription on base 
of Edmonia Lewis' group, 225 

Form, alleged Negro see Negro 
form 

Fort Griswold, Conn., tablet and 
relief in, bear names and figure 
of Negro Revolutionary soldiers, 
185 

Fort Mill, S. C, Faithful Slaves 
Monument at; which see 

Four Continents, The see Con- 
tinents 

Frankness in art, 105 

Free America, figure on Attucks 
Monument, Boston, 115 (note) 

Freedman, The, statuette, by 
J. Q. A. Ward, 12-19; mentioned, 
28, 44: mistake as to location of, 
196; exhibited at Panama-Pacific 
Exposition, 197; on sale, 197 

Freedman, A, shown: in Scofield's 
panel, Cleveland, 38; in Bissell's 
gr'p, Edinburgh, 34; in Mrs. Ful- 
ler's gr'p, 57; in Rogers groups, 
144, 150, 152, 1631 See Freed Slave 



[232] 



INDEX 



Freedmen's Memorials (for Lin- 
coln) See Lincoln Monuments 
Freedom, an Epic of, suggested by- 
certain Rogers groups, 158 

Freedom, Friends of, in a Rogers 
group, 148 

Freedom (The Freedvvoman), grp, 
by Edmonia Lewis, 225 

Freedom, statue on Nat'l Capitol; 
see Liberty 

Freed Slave, statue at the Centen- 
nial, 133; figure on milit'y mon., 
Indianapolis, 126, 219; figures in 
designs by Mills and Miss Hos- 
mer, 41, 203 See also Freedman 
and Freedwoman 

Freedwoman, The, group, by Ed- 
monia Lewis, 20-23; mentioned. 
44; located, 197; picture of the 
work finally secured. 225 

Freedwoman, A, on the Beecher 
Monument, 67; in Mrs. Fuller's 
group 57; in the Rogers groups, 
144, 147 See also The Freed- 
woman, by Edmonia Lewis, and 
figure on military monument, 
Detroit (p. 24), and the Cumaean 
Sibyl See also Freed Slave 

Freedwoman, conventional "make 
up" for a, 70 (note) 

Freeman, Jordan, Negro Revolu- 
tionary soldier, 185 

French, Daniel Chester, sculptor; 
one of his figures discussed by 
Walton, 63; his group. Africa, in 
New York City, which see 

Friend in the Swamp, A, a Rogers 
group, 152 

Fugitive's Story, The, a Rogers 
group, 147 

Fuller, Meta V. Warrick, sculp- 
tress, Emancipation gr'p, which 
see; her Tableau Groups at the 
Jamestown Exposition, 183; she 
assists author, xxii; cited, 225 



Garrison, Wm. Lloyd, 147 
"Gates of Life," (Ransom), 179 
Genius discussed, 141 
Glory of Emancipation, name sug- 
gested for group at Waterbury. 
113 
Glover, Geo., alluded to, 225 
Goddess of Peace, 126, 127 
Goddess of War, (Bellona), 76, 123. 

124, 125 
Godiva, Lady, figure, 136 
Gonse, Louis, cited, 64 
Gorham Co., New York, 197 
Government, the American See 

United States Government 
Greek Slave, The, statue, 1-3 



Hale, Nathan, statue, 74 

Harper, Frances Watkins, 187 

Harriet Tubman Tablet, Auburn, 
N.Y., 102-106 

Harriet Tubman (Davis), monu- 
ment at the grave of, 187 

Hathaway, Isaac, sculptor, 183 

Hayti, gives money for Douglass 
Monument, 106 

Heroes of Tomorrow See Hopes 
of the Future 

Hervilly, A. D., assists author, xxii 

Hierophile, Greek name of Libyan 
Sibyl, 195 

High Art See Art 

High-water mark in dramatic ex- 
pression in Amer'n sculpture, 77 

History, figure on military monu- 
ment, Detroit, 24 

Hogarth, artist, 47 

Honey Hill (battle), 173 

Hopes of the Future, figures in 
group at Panama-Pacific Expo- 
sition, 175-179 

Kosmer, Harriet, sculptress, de- 
signed elaborate Lincoln Memo- 
rial, which see 



[233] 



INDEX 



Howard, Gen. O. O., 206 
Howard University, 11,197 
Humanity, figure in Mrs. Fuller's 

group, 57, 64; see also page 93 
Humor, discussed by Carlyle, 161 
Hunt, Holman, artist, 48 

Ideal, the, and Idealization in Art, 
58, 66, 153 ff; see also page 200 

Impersonal, the, in Art, 55 ff 

Inconsistency, probable accusa- 
tion of, 104; Emerson cited as to, 
105 

Indianapolis: Peace and War gr'ps 
on military mon.; see Peace 

Indianapolis News, cited, 125 

Inspiration in art, 168 

Interpretation, importance of, xviii 



Jackson, Jane, original of Vedder's 

Sibyls, 82 
Jackson, May Howard, sculptress, 

183, 184 
James, Henry, cited, 6 
James, Juliet, cited, 178 (note) 
Jamestown Exposition, Mrs. Ful- 
ler's groups at, 183 
Jarves, James J., cited: as to work- 
men "turning rebel," 4; as to the 
Libyan Sibyl, 8; as to Ward's 
Freedman, 12; as to the Higher 
Art, 9. 114 
Jesus (the Christ); His frankness, 
105; heard gladly, 146; alluded to, 
26,28 
"Jewel of Liberty," (Lincoln), 33 
Johnson, Edward S., cited, 202 
Johnson, Mae P. Smith, assists the 
author, xxiii 

Kellogg, Jonathan, 218 
Kemeys, Edward, sculptor, 128 
Keyser, Ephraim, sculptor, 129 



Kimball, Helen F. f assists author, 

30 
Kimball, Moses, pres'nts replica of 

Ball's group to City of Boston, 26 
Kneeling Slave, Lincoln and a, 

group by Thos. Ball, 26, 44, 198, 

201, 204 See also Freed Slave 
Knight of Freedom (Beecher), 67 
Knowledge is Power, figure of a 

Negro boy by Valentine, 131 
Kraus, Robert, sculptor of Attucks 

Monument in Boston, which see 



L'Abolizione, figure by Vincenzo, 
at the Centennial, 134 

L'Africaine (Selika), statue by 
Caroni at the Centennial, 132; 
story of Selika, 221 

LaFarge, John, cited, 194 

Lake Erie, Battle of, picture by 
Powell, 79 

Latham, Lambo, Negro Revolu- 
tionary soldier, 185 

Laurvik, J. Nilsen, mentions The 
Nigger, a figure at Panama-Pa- 
cific Expos'n, 188; alluded to, 197 

Lee, Arthur, sculptor; his figure, 
The Nigger, at Panama-Pacific 
Exposition, 188 

Lentilli, sculptor, 175 

Lewis, Edmonia, sculptress, of 
statue (group), The Freedwo- 
man, which see: her work allud- 
ed to, 183 

Liberty (official name, Freedom), 
statue on the dome of the Nat'l 
Capitol, by Thomas Crawford, 
3-4; completed by Negro work- 
man, 4, 193; head-dress of, con- 
troversy about, 4, 90, 91 (note); 
over-elaborate in "make-up," 88 

Liberty Cap, not permitted on 
statue of Liberty, 4; on figure of 
America at Nat. Cap'l, 91 (note) 



[234] 



INDEX 



Liberty, figures on proposed Lin- 
coln Memorials, 41, 42, 204; on 
mil. monument, Indianapolis, 126 

Libyan Sibyl, statue, by W. W. 
Story, 5-12, 26, 195 

Lincoln and a Kneeling Slave, 
group, by Thomas Ball, 26, 44, 
198, 201, 204; see also Freed Slave 

Lincoln, figure, in Ball's group, 
26, 44, 201, 204; in Bissell's group, 
32; in Scofield's panel, 45; see 
also Lincoln Monuments 

Lincoln Memorials, proposed : de- 
signed by Clark Mills, 39-43; de- 
signed by Harriet Hosmer, 202- 
204, 207 

Lincoln Memorial, erected by 
Freedmen See Emancipation 
group by Ball 

Lincoln Monuments: at Spring- 
field, Ills., 37, 202; at Chicago, 
35 (note) See also Lincoln Me- 
morials and Emancipation gr'ps 
and panels— separate entries for 
each 

Lincoln signing Proclamation, as 
a picture, discussed, 47 

Link, C. S., describes Faithful 
Slaves Monument at Fort Mill, 
S. C, 118 

Literalness in art See Realism 

Livermore, Mary A., describes 
Anne Whitney's statues, Ethi- 
opia and Toussaint L'Ouver- 
ture, 136-143 

Living pictures, rural, 88 

London Art Journal, describes 
Miss Hosmer's design for Lin- 
coln Memorial, 203 

London Athenaeum, cited, 7 

London Exhibitions, of 1851 and 
1862, the Greek Slave at, and 
Story's Sibyl and Cleopatra at, 
1, 5, 6, 10 

Lotus Eater, The, statue, 136 



Lowell, James Russell, cited, 66, 

157, 163 
Lydenburg, H. M., assists author, 

xxii 



McCabe, cited as to Pezzicar's fig- 
ure and Malfatti's figure at the 
Centennial, 133 

MacMonnies, Frederick, his group 
the Navy oa Brooklyn military 
monument, see; his Army group 
discussed, 122 

Making Friends with the Cook, a 
Rogers group, 150 

Malfatti, his figure, Emancipat'n, 
at the Centennial, 133 

"Mammy," Negro, 90, 118 (note), 
119 

Martineau, Harriet, 142 

Mary (The Virgin), alluded to, 168 

Massachusetts, 54th Reg't, Volun- 
teers (Colored), memorial for; 
see Shaw Memorial 

Massacre Monument, Boston ; see 
Attucks Monument 

Masterpiece, what constitutes a, 
64, 141 

Melitz, Leo, cited, 222 

Men of Color, depicted as superior 
men physically, 80 See also pp* 
73,81 

Meyerbeer, alluded to, 133, 221 

Michael Angelo, artist, 48, 59 

Millet, painter, his pictures, the 
Sower and the Woman Carrying 
Water, discussed, 154, 155 

Military Monuments : Detroit, fig- 
ure. Emancipation, on. 24; Edin- 
burgh, Emancipation group on, 
32; Cleveland, Emancipat'n pan- 
el and Mortar Practice group on, 
37; Brooklyn, the Navy and the 
Army groups on, 74, 122; Water- 
bury, Democracy of Childhood, 



[235] 



INDEX 



group on, 109; Indianapolis, 
Peace, group on, ISO; Boston, 
Shaw Memorial, 164 See also 
separate entries for each 

Military Monuments, three show 
a Negro Defender, 72, 207 

Mills, Clark, casts statue of Liber- 
ty, 4; designs proposed Lincoln 
Memorial, which see 

Mills, Fisk, cited, 193 

Mobile Bay, Battle of , picture, by 
Overend, 81 

Mortar Practice, group on milit'y 
monument, Cleveland, by Levi 
T. Scofield, 37, 71-73 



National Academy, Vedder elected 
into, 83 

National Capitol See Capitol 

National Museum, 90 (note) 

National Religious Training Sch'l, 
alluded to, xvii 

Nations of the East, and of the 
West, groups at Panama-Pacific 
Exposition, 175 ff 

Nation's Ward, The, figure by 
Edward Valentine, 130 

Naval actions, Negroes in pictures 
of, 79, 80, 81 

Naval groups : on military monu- 
ments, Cleveland and Brooklyn, 
37, 73 See entries for each 

Navy, The, group, on Brooklyn 
military monument, by Freder'k 
MacMonnies, 73-78, 208 

Negative qualities in art, 59 

Negress ; the use of the word dis- 
cussed, 207 

Negro, alleged physical peculiari- 
ties of the, discussed, 209-213 

Negro, sculptured heads of the, on 
buildings, 188 

Negro-American soldier, recogni- 
tion of, 54, 168, 222 



Negro Aspiration, name suggested 
for group on mil. monument at 
Waterbury, 113 

Negro baby, in Rogers groups, 
145, 147; figure of by Mrs. Jack- 
son, 184 

Negro boy, depicted : as forcing 
open the book, 110; as a curious 
spectator, 150; as in mischief, 
158; as laughing and as asleep, 
130, 131; as a Hope of the Future, 
177 See also Mrs. Fuller's group, 
55 ff 

Negro Color-sergeant at Port Hud- 
son, 38 

Negro Defenders (of the Nation) 
in American Art, mentioned and 
discussed, 72, 74, 79, 207 See also 
Negro Soldiers and Sailors 

Negro, The, exceptionally endow- 
ed in art power, 11 

Negro features in American art; 
see African features 

Negro form, alleged, discussed, 
208 ff 

Negroes See Black Folk; Colored 
people, women; Men of color 

Negro girl, depicted: in Mrs. Ful- 
ler's Emancipation group, 57 ff; 
in Rogers Africa at the National 
Capitol, 87; in a John Rogers 
group, 158 ff See also Freed- 
woman 

Negro "mammy"; see "Mammy" 

Negro soldiers and sailors : their 
work justified Emancipation and 
their valor inspired America's 
greatest work of art, 165 and 172 
See also Negro Defenders and 
pages 125 and 128 

Negro women in American sculp- 
ture; see Freedwoman 

Negro Regiment, memorial for; 
see Shaw Memorial 

Negroes "in action," 73, 80, 81; see 



[236] 



INDEX 



also Negro Defenders 

Negroes, stalwart, and scantily at- 
tired, in art, 80, 81 

Nelson (Lord) Column, London, 
Negro in relief on, 80 (note) 

Neuhaus, Eugen, cited as to gr'ps 
at Panama-Pacific Expo., 176 ff 

New York City; French's group, 
Africa, in, which see 

Nigger, The, figure by Arthur Lee 
exhibited at Panama-Pacific Ex- 
position, 188 

North Star, Fred. Douglass' news- 
paper, 106 

Norton, Charles Eliot, 5 

Oberlin College, Edmonia Lewis 

attended, 20, 197 
Ohio "boys" in 54th Mass. Reg't, 

172 
Old Masters, alluded to, 35 
"One love, one hope, one duty," 

(O'Reilly), 78, 117 
Oneness of high human purpose; 

set forth by MacMonnies' grp, 

77 
O'Reilly, John Boyle; his poem on 

Attucks justified the memorial, 

115; the poem quoted from, 78, 

116, 215 
Over-elaboration in art, discussed, 

43, 70, 88 See also Realism 
Overend's picture, Battle of Mo- 
bile Bay, 81 

Paintings : Powell's Battle of Lake 
Erie, 79; Overend's Battle of Mo- 
bile Bay, 81; Vedder's Cumaean 
Sibyl, 82; Millet's Sower and his 
Woman Carrying Water, 154 ff ; 
Hunt's Triumph of the Inno- 
cents, 48 

Panama-Pacific Exposit'n : groups, 
Nations of the East and of the 



West, at, 175; figure, The Nigger 

at, 188; Ward's statuette, The 

Freedman, at, 197 
Pan is dead, poem, quoted, 101 
Partridge, Wm. Ordway, cited, 163 
Paul (the Apostle), 105 
Payne, Frank O., cited, 204. 206 
Peace, Angel of, Goddess of, 126 
Peace, group, on military monu- 
ment, Indianapolis, designed by 

Bruno Schmitz, 120-128, 219, 220 
Pendleton, Lelia, A., cited, 196 
People's sculptor; John Rogers so 

designated, 163 
Personal, the, in the representat'n 

of themes, 51 ff 
Pezzicar, F., sculptor; his figure, 

Emancipation at the Centennial, 

133-135 
Philadelphia, City Hall, 188 
Phillips, Mary E., cited, 8 
Phillips, Wendell, 142, 148, 201 
Poetry and Art— their parallelism, 

169 
Pope, Miss E. D., cited, 217 
Port Hudson, color-serg't at, 38 
Portrait statues, discussed, 108 
Powell's picture, Battle of Lake 

Erie, 79 
Powers' statue, the Greek Slave, 

1-3 
"Puddings rolled in the dust." 104 
Putnam, Herbert, assists author, 

xxii 

Race prejudice, children's freedom 
from, represented, 110 ff 

Ransom, Rev. Reverdy C, quoted, 
179 

Ransomed Slave See Freed Slave 

Raphael, artist, 48 

Realism may be pushed too far. 
70, 104, 105 See also over-elabo- 
ration 

Rebellion, a souvenir of, 18 



[237] 



INDEX 



Reconstruction, The First Fruits 
of, name suggested for a Rogers 
group, 163 

Reed, Philip, Negro slave, com- 
pletes figure of Liberty, 193 

Restraint in art, 35 See also Over- 
elaboration 

Revolution Breaking the Chains, 
figure on Attacks Monument, 
115 

Richmond, Va.: Valentine the only 
sculptor in, 128; tablet in, men- 
tions a heroic Negro, 185 

Rochester, N. Y., the Douglass 
Monument in, 106 

Rodin, sculptor, alluded to, 59, 60, 
172 

Rogers, John, sculptor; his six 
groups which show Black Folk, 
148-163; his widow assists author, 
153 

Rogers, Randolph, sculptor figure 
Emancipation on military monu- 
ment, Detroit, and figure Africa 
at the National Capitol; see each 

Roth, Frederick G. R., sculptor, 
175 

Rude, sculptor, 122 

Ruskin, John, cited, xviii, 128 



Samt-Gaudens, Augustus, sculptor 
Shaw Memorial, Boston, which 
see; his Sherman Monument, 52; 
mentioned, 61 

Salem, Peter, Negro Revolution- 
ary soldier, 184 

Sandhurst, cited, 134 

Schmitz, Bruno, designer of mili- 
tary monument in Indianapolis 
and of Peace and War groups on 
the same; see Peace 

Scofield, Levi T., designer Eman- 
cipation panel, and Mortar Prac- 
tice group, on military monu- 



ment, Cleveland; see each 
Sculpture, "not a form of art for 

the dull," 63; how produced, 195 
Selika See L'Africaine 
Servitors. Negro, in groups at the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition, 176 ff 
Shaw Memorial in Boston, by Au- 
gustus Saint-Gaudens, 161-174,. 
222, 223, 224 
Sherman (Gen.), monument, 52, 53 
Shinn, Edward; see Strahan 
Sibyls, The, discussed, 194 
Slave Auction, The, a Rogers 

group, 144 
Slave, Freed See Freed Slave 
Slave, Lincoln and a Kneeling See 

Lincoln etc. 
Slaves, Faithful See Faithful 

Slaves 
Slaves, former; their memorials 
for Mr. Lincoln See Lincoln 
Monuments 
Smith, Amanda, 187 
Smith, Harry C, assists author, 205 
Sojourner Truth; her story sug- 
gests statue of the Libyan Sibyl, 
9; alluded to, 187, 198, 198 
Soldiers' and Sailors' monuments; 

see Military monuments 
South, sculptors from the, and 

Black Folk, 128-131 
Sower, The, Millet's picture, 154 
Stalwart Negoes in Art, 80-81 
Stodart, E. W.; his engraving of 

the Libyan Sibyl, 6 
Story, William Wetmore, sculptor; 
his statues, The Libyan Sibyl 
and Cleopatra, 5-12; Story men- 
tioned, 95 
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, cited, 9 ff 
Strahan (Edward Shinn), cited. 

132, 133, 220 
Sturgis, cited, 17 
Sumner, Charles, 80, 148 
Sun of Emancipation, 22 



[238] 



INDEX 



Taft, Lorado. cited, regarding: 
Ward's Freedman, 17; Rogers' 
Emancipation figure, Detroit, 24; 
Ball's Emancipation group, 27; 
Ward and "his Beecher Monu- 
ment, 67, 68, 71; MacMonnies' 
Naval group, 74; sculptors from 
the South, 128, 130; the John 
Rogers groups, 151, 152; Shaw 
Memorial, 166 if 

Taking the Oath, a Rogers group, 
149, 150 

Talbert, Mary B., assists author, 
197 

Tarquin, Roman King, 83 

Technique in sculpture, 60 ff 

Tennyson, quoted, 157 

Tetra-grammaton, 7 

Thompson, John W., started move- 
ment to erect Douglass monu- 
ment, 106-107 

'"Toning" of African features See 
African Features 

Toussaint L'Ouverture, statue by 
Anne Whitney, 136-143 

Trafalgar, Battle of, picture and 
sculptured relief of, 80 

Triumph of the Innocents, picture 
by Hunt, 48 

Trotter, Geraldine L., assists au- 
thor, xxii 

Truth, Sojourner See Sojourner 
Truth 

Tubman, Harriet See Harriet 
Tubman 

Tuckerman, cited, as to Libyan 
Sibyl, 9 (note): as to Ward's 
Freedman, 14; ment'n'd, 73, xviii 

Tylor, E. B„ cited, 212 

United States Government, repre- 
sented by female in Bissell's 
group at Waterbury, 110; three 
works of art owned by, which 
show Black Folk, viz; Africa, 



group by French; Africa, figure 

by Rogers; Powell's Picture— see 

separate entry for each 
Unc' Henry, figure by Valentine, 

131 (note) 
Uncle Ned's School, a Rogers gr'p, 

153-163 
Underground Railroad, 103-104 
Union, figure on Detroit military 

monument, 24 

Vale, Henry A., assists author, 41 

Valentine, Edward, sculptor; his 
figures, The Nation's Ward and 
Knowledge is Power, 130-131 

Van Dyke, Henry, cited, 49 (note) 

Van Dyke, J. C, cited, 154 

Vasco de Gama, 133, 221 

Vedder, Elihu. painter and sculp- 
tor of the Cumaean Sibyl; which 
see 

Victory, figures on military monu- 
ments, 24, 52, 224 

Victory, Nelson's flag-ship, black 
men on, 80 

Victory of the Union, name sug- 
gested for group, 53 

Vincenzo; his figure, L'Abolizione, 
134 

Wagner (Fort), Battle of, 173 

Waller, Dr. Owen M., assists au- 
thor, 93 

Walton, William, cited, 63 

Ward, J. Q. A., sculptor the Freed- 
man, statuette, and the Beecher 
Monument, Brooklyn; see sepa- 
rate entries for each; Taft's trib- 
ute to Ward, 68, 71 

War groups on military monu- 
ments, 75, 120, 122 ff 

Warren, Francis H., assists author, 
24; cited, 198 

Warrick, Meta V. See Fuller, 
Mrs. Meta V. Warrick 



[239] 



INDEX 



Washington City— Liberty on the 
Dome of the Capitol; Africa on 
door-frame of the same; Ball's 
Emancipation group; proposed 
Lincoln Memorials by Mills and 
Miss Hosmer; see separate en- 
tries for each 

Waterbury, Conn., Bissell's group 
in, 109-114 

"Weed's plain heart, A," (Lowell), 
157 

Western Sanitary Commission, 200 

Wheatley, Phillis, 187 

"White silence," (Mrs. Browning), 
2 

Whitney, Anne; her statues, Ethi- 
opia and Toussaint L'Ouverture, 
136-143 



Whitney, Mrs. Harry Payne, 188 

Whittier, John G., 147 

Wilberforce, cited, 17 

Woman Carrying Water, The, 
Millet's picture, 155 

Wordsworth's sonnet on Tous- 
saint, 143 

'"World is weak, The," (Mrs. 
Browning), 106 

World's Work magazine, assists 
author, xxiii 

Wounded Scout, The, a Rogers 
group, 152 

Wright, R. R., assists author, xxii 

Wyeth, Samuel Douglas, cited, 193 

Yankee enthusiasts, 160 
Yeatman. James E. f 200 



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